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Here are the key players in the Microsoft antitrust case:
Bill Gates, 47, Microsoft Corp.'s chairman. After dropping out of Harvard University, co-founded Microsoft in 1975 with Paul Allen. Even with the country's technology slump, still America's wealthiest person -- with $43 billion. Considered a forceful competitor and executive. During remedy hearings, testified for three days, arguing that states' penalties would damage the PC industry and put Microsoft innovations in a 10-year period of hibernation.
Despite battling with government lawyers in a deposition earlier in the case, Gates largely kept his cool on the witness stand. In 1998, promoted Steve Ballmer, a headstrong friend from Harvard, to president of Microsoft while Gates took over as the company's "chief software architect."
U.S. District Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson, 65, former Navy officer. He had been a fixture in the case since 1995, but the U.S. Court of Appeals in June 2001 reversed his order to break up Microsoft and said another judge would decide the penalty. Lives in Georgetown and sometimes walks the 20 blocks to the courthouse.
A Republican appointed in 1982 by President Ronald W. Reagan, Jackson approved the 1995 settlement in the first government lawsuit against Microsoft. Occasionally lost his temper toward witnesses and lawyers but also openly laughed at videotape of Gates' deposition. Gave interviews to reporters after making his decision to break up Microsoft.
Many of his comments, some chronicled in books about the legal ordeal, were used by Microsoft in its appeal briefs to make the case that he is biased against the company.
U.S. District Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly, 59. An appointee of President Clinton with a reputation as a meticulous jurist. Randomly selected to take the Microsoft case on Aug. 24, 2001, replacing Jackson as the judge handling the case, and almost immediately pushed the sides into settlement discussions that resulted in the federal deal.
Asked few questions during the public arguments, and gave little insight into her thinking. Issued consumer-friendly rulings in two high-profile cases -- one involving a credit union and the other a generic version of a cancer drug. Also handling the case of a legal challenge to the military's detainment of suspected al-Qaida terrorists in Cuba.
Iowa Attorney General Tom Miller, 58. First elected to post in 1978, he is in his fifth term. Coordinated the legal strategy against Microsoft for the states since the inception of the case. Also focuses on consumer-protection issues and juvenile crime.
Brendan V. Sullivan, 60, of the Washington law firm Williams and Connolly, lead trial attorney for the 18 states and the District of Columbia. Spoke only three times during entire two-month hearings, including speeches during opening statements and closing arguments; colleague Steven Kuney and younger lawyers in the firm handled witnesses. Known for his successful defense of Iran-Contra figure Oliver North. Firm also represented Clinton during his personal legal troubles.
Dan K. Webb, 57, of the Chicago law firm Winston and Strawn, lead lawyer for Microsoft. Known for tough questioning of opposing witnesses. Working for the government, Webb prosecuted Adm. John Poindexter in the Iran-Contra scandal. In private practice, he defended the tobacco industry in liability cases and General Electric Co. in a diamond price-fixing trial.
Charles A. James, 48, U.S. Justice Department assistant attorney general for the antitrust division. James, who represents the government in the case, took his current post in July 2001. Recently said he would leave government service on Nov. 22 to take a job with ChevronTexaco Corp. Previously worked for a Washington law firm as a specialist in antitrust issues, including those in information technology. Served in the Justice Department under former President George H.W. Bush, from 1989 to 1992, including time as acting assistant attorney general.
Philip Beck, 51, of Chicago firm Bartlit Beck Herman Palenchar & Scott, main trial lawyer for the Justice Department during the settlement hearings. In 2000, Beck led President Bush's efforts to stop a recount of disputed presidential election ballots in Florida. Has represented many large companies, including DuPont Corp., Bayer AG, Phillips Petroleum Co. and General Motors Corp.