Testing policies and penalties for performance-enhancing drugs:
MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALLAt least two annual urine tests administered during and between seasons for anabolic steroids and amphetamines. Positive steroid tests result in a 50-game suspension for a first offense, a 100-game suspension for a second offense and a lifetime ban for a third offense.
NFLUrine tests administered randomly during the season or offseason for anabolic steroids and amphetamines. Players must be tested at least once a year. Four-game suspension for a first positive steroid test, six-game suspension for a second positive test and a full season for a third positive test.
NBAUrine tests administered four times randomly during the season for steroids and amphetamines. Ten-game suspension for a first positive test, 25-game suspension for a second positive, one year for a third and a lifetime ban for a fourth. Congress has criticized the policy for not addressing human growth hormone or designer steroids.
NHLPlayers subject to a maximum two tests during the season for performance-enhancing drugs. Twenty-game suspension for a first offense, 60-game suspension for a second offense and a lifetime ban for a third offense. Congress has criticized the policy for not requiring annual tests and not including designer steroids.
OlympicsAll Olympic sports adhere to the World Anti-Doping Agency list of banned substances. Athletes can be tested at random while not in competition and at international events. Blood and urine tests are used. First positive results in a minimum two-year suspension and the second in a lifetime ban.