WASHINGTON - Several months after her identity as a CIA operative was exposed in a newspaper column, Valerie Plame had dinner with five of her classmates from the agency's training academy.
Four had already left the CIA, and they spent the evening catching up on what they'd done during their clandestine careers, as well as the jobs and moves that followed. But even though Plame's "cover" had been cracked wide open, her dinner companions didn't pry for details. Even in that tight circle, no one wanted to spill any more secrets.
"Cover is a mosaic; it's a puzzle," said James Marcinkowski, a former CIA case officer who attended the dinner. "Every piece is important [to protect] because you don't know which pieces the bad guys are missing."
The Plame case brought intense new scrutiny on the White House last week amid disclosures that President Bush's chief political adviser, Karl Rove, is a central figure in the controversy surrounding the "outing" of Plame to the press.
A precious commodity
But the case has also called attention to the precious, concealing commodity the intelligence community calls "cover." The term refers to the amalgam of lies and props, from false names to front companies, that disguise a spy's identity and purpose.
Although often cast in binary terms - an operative is either under cover or not - there are distinct categories of cover that CIA operatives use, and an almost endless list of components. Some cover is tissue-thin and disposable. Other arrangements are so layered and deep that they anticipate hostile probing of every facet of a person's life.
Plame's cover - in which she posed as a private energy consultant while working for a CIA department tracking weapons proliferation - was somewhere in the middle of those extremes.
Current and former U.S. intelligence officials said it's unlikely that Plame is in any danger as a result of being identified. And an internal review at the CIA concluded that her exposure caused minimal damage, mainly because she had been working at headquarters for years, former officials familiar with the review said.
Still, her clandestine career is over, and the outrage among many current and former case officers lingers because cover is something they go to such great lengths to protect.
"It doesn't matter whether he used her name," Marcinkowski said of the recent disclosures surrounding Rove. "It doesn't matter what her status was. He gave up a piece of the puzzle, and he had no right to do it."
As many as one-third of the CIA's approximately 20,000 employees are under cover or have worked in that capacity at some point, according to former CIA officials. The agency declined to comment for this article.
The majority of the agency's undercover officers work in the clandestine service - the branch that operates stations around the world, recruiting spies, tracking terrorists and carrying out covert missions designed to influence events or even topple governments.
Plame's identity was revealed in print two years ago by syndicated columnist and conservative commentator Robert Novak. But cover can be compromised in a number of ways.
The most damaging breaches have often been committed by insiders, such as former CIA officer Aldrich Ames, who was convicted in the mid-1990s of spying for the Russians and revealing dozens of undercover operations and agents' identities to his handlers. In fact, Plame was among those recalled from their overseas assignments at the time, out of concern - never confirmed, former CIA officials said - that she was among those whom Ames had exposed.
More recently, a host of CIA aliases and cover arrangements were exposed in embarrassing fashion by an Italian magistrate. The judge was seeking to prosecute agency operatives for their alleged role in kidnapping a radical Islamic cleric in Milan in 2003 and transferring him to Egypt.
Court records released in the case list the names, phone numbers and other details drawn from travel documents used by 19 suspected CIA operatives accused of taking part in the operation. Most of the names seem to be aliases, but the documents appear to contain the real identities of a senior CIA officer based in Milan, and two others in the United States.
The documents suggest that three of the operatives represented themselves as employees of a company called "Coachmen Enterprises" in Washington, D.C. A search of public directories and business records turned up no listing for such a firm.
Another operative, who used the name "Eliana Castaldo," is linked in the documents to a telephone number in Pennsylvania. Several calls by a reporter were answered by different female voices offering inconsistent answers to basic questions. One refused to identify the business, a second said she was with an answering service, and a third said the number was that of "Washburn and Company." In each case, the speaker said there was no Eliana Castaldo at that number.
CIA officials describe such flimsy backstopping as "notional cover," a thin guise for operations that don't need to withstand intense or long-term scrutiny.
The vast majority of the agency's overseas officers are under what is known as "official cover," which means they are posing as employees of another government agency. The State Department allows hundreds of its positions in embassies around the world to be occupied by CIA officers representing themselves as diplomats.
A more rare and dangerous job category is "nonofficial cover" - or NOC [pronounced "knock"] - in which CIA officers pose as employees of international corporations, as scientists or as members of other professions. Such covers tend to provide a plausible reason to work long periods overseas and come in contact with foreign nationals the agency wants to recruit.
Plame worked under official cover early in her career but moved to nonofficial, commercial cover during the 1990s, maintaining that status even after she returned from overseas to work at CIA headquarters. Federal election records show that in 1999 she listed as her employer a Boston firm named Brewster-Jennings & Associates, which former agency officials acknowledge was a front company.
A 'NOC,' or not?
In recent years, she has worked in the counter-proliferation division of the agency's clandestine service. Despite her continued use of commercial cover until Novak's column, some former CIA officials argue she was not a NOC in the purest sense of the term, because operatives in that super-secret program rarely go near agency facilities, let alone take jobs at headquarters.
NOCs are known for taking extreme risks as part of their work. If caught by a foreign intelligence service, they have no diplomatic immunity to protect them from prosecution under their host country's laws.
Often, even close relatives have to be shielded from the truth. One former NOC said it was particularly traumatic to inform his son, when the boy was in his mid-teens, that his father had been misleading him for years about his true line of work.
"He was pretty stunned," the former NOC said. "He was also disappointed that no, I didn't carry a gun, didn't get to meet pretty enemy spies and that my cell phone was just a cell phone."
Other former CIA officers described similarly difficult conversations with loved ones, and said one of the hardest parts of being under cover is the extent to which that status can complicate your personal life.
Plame's husband, former U.S. Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson IV, said the two met at a diplomatic party in 1997.
"But I didn't know what she did until we were well along in our courtship," he said, adding that her public outing continues to ripple through her private life. "People she has known for upwards of 20 years have all sort of had to go through this period of adjusting to who is the real Valerie Wilson."
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