She died of complications from
In more than 60 years as a published poet, Ms. Rich examined the evolving lives of women in modern society and embodied many of those changes herself. She was a precocious child of a privileged Baltimore family, then a young wife and mother, and later dedicated herself to the ideals of feminism.
In the 1970s, she became one of the first mainstream poets to write from an avowedly lesbian point of view. Her subtle poems and uncompromising essays brought Ms. Rich a loyal following that extended far beyond the measured world of poetry.
"No other living poet, has made such a profound impression on American intellectual life," Dana Gioia, a poet and former director of the National Endowment for the Arts wrote in 1999.
Ms. Rich's first volume of poetry, published in 1951, was praised byW.H. Auden. But as she began to chafe at the traditional role of mother and housewife, her writing took on a sharper edge. Her 1963 collection, "Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law," represented one of the country's first literary nods to feminism.
By 1968, in her poem "Planetarium," ostensibly about a 19th-century female astronomer, Ms. Rich was writing from the perspective of a woman seeking an independent identity:
I am an instrument in the shape
of a woman trying to translate pulsations
into images … for the relief of the body
and the reconstruction of my mind.
One of Ms. Rich's most celebrated books of poetry, "Diving Into the Wreck" (1973), won the National Book Award and put her in the front rank of American poets, male or female.
Ms. Rich wrote almost as many essays as poems — and they often took on a bolder tone than the carefully sifted language of her verse.
In her 1976 essay collection, "Of Woman Born," Ms. Rich declared her feminist credo and wrote for the first time from an openly lesbian viewpoint: "The suppressed lesbian I had been carrying in me since adolescence began to stretch her limbs."
She often described men as either cruel toward women or as emotionally needy and dependent. Some of her readers began to cringe at what they saw as a reflexive anti-male bias.
"It is vexing to see such a dedicated feminist playing the dangerous game of using the oppressor's tactics," critic Francine du Plessix Gray wrote in
For her part, Ms. Rich made no apologies for her writing or herself.
"I write as woman, lesbian and feminist," she told
Adrienne Cecile Rich was born May 16, 1929, in Baltimore.
She grew up on West University Parkway and graduated from 1947 from the
Ms. Rich wrote more than 20 books of poetry and taught at many universities, including Cornell, Rutgers and Stanford. In 1986, she won the first Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize for career achievement.
In 1953, Ms. Rich married Alfred Haskell Conrad, an economics professor. After they separated in 1970, he committed suicide.
Her partner since 1976 has been Jamaican-born writer Michelle Cliff. Other survivors include three sons from her marriage, David Conrad and Pablo Conrad, both of
In 1997, Ms. Rich refused to accept the National Medal of Arts to protest proposed funding cuts to the arts and what she saw as a growing gap between the rich and the poor.