Dear Liz: I need to understand how credit reporting agencies treat personal unsecured loan debt versus credit card debt.
I am considering getting a personal loan from a reputable lender to pay down my credit card debt. The amount of my overall debt will still be the same, just in a different category. How will my credit score be affected?
Answer: What you need to understand is how credit scoring formulas treat installment debt (loans) versus revolving debt (credit cards). Credit reporting agencies maintain the credit reports used to create scores — but don't bless (or curse) particular types of debt.
The personal loan's overall effect on your credit scores is likely to be positive if you pay the loan on time. What you owe on an installment loan is typically treated more favorably than a similar balance on a credit card.
Installment loans have other advantages: You typically get a fixed rate, rather than the variable one charged on most credit cards, and your balance will be paid off over the term of the loan, which is usually three years. If you stop carrying balances on your credit cards, you should be in much better shape: free of debt with potentially higher scores.
Often the best place to get installment loans is from credit unions, which are member-owned financial institutions that may offer lower interest rates.
Avoid any lender that gives you a high-pressure sales pitch, that offers you a loan if you have bad credit or that pitches debt settlement, which is far more dangerous to your finances than a personal loan.
If the lender tries to tell you about a new "government program" that wipes out credit card debt or tries to collect big upfront fees, you've stumbled onto a scam.
Social Security death benefits for divorced spouse
Dear Liz: I have heard conflicting information about Social Security death benefits for a divorced spouse. We divorced after 18 years and I have not remarried. What percent of his benefit is available to me?
My own Social Security is low as it started as a disability payment and then converted to regular Social Security when I turned 65.
To the best of my knowledge, my former spouse was getting the maximum Social Security benefit. He was a very high wage earner. Can you provide a simple-to-understand answer? I have received conflicting information from numerous sources including three separate people at the Social Security Administration.
Answer: It's concerning that you would get varying answers from Social Security representatives, since the answer is simple given the facts you describe.
You should be entitled to a survivor's benefit that equals 100% of what your ex was getting when he died, said economist Laurence Kotlikoff, a Social Security expert who co-wrote "Get What's Yours: The Secrets to Maxing Out Your Social Security."
Your marriage lasted the required 10 years, and you would be starting survivor benefits after your own full retirement age, so the amount would not be reduced to reflect an early start.
The fact that you're unmarried is irrelevant in this case. Survivors' benefits are available even to those who remarry, as long as the subsequent marriage happens after the recipient reached age 60.
That's different from spousal benefits for the divorced, which aren't available after remarriage at any age unless the subsequent marriage ends.
It's possible that some or all of the people you queried didn't understand your question or thought you were asking about spousal rather than survivor benefits. Another possibility is that they just don't know the rules.
That's not unusual, Kotlikoff said. Social Security regulations are complex, and not all of its employees are experienced. Kotlikoff said he often hears from people who have been told things that are "outright wrong, partially wrong, incomplete or confused."
Educating yourself with Kotlikoff's book and the Social Security's own site may be a better solution than relying on its employees for answers.