The primary purpose of Californians for Consumer Privacy, an advocacy group formed by San Francisco real estate developer Alastair Mactaggart, is to push for a ballot initiative adding restrictions on companies that profit from the collection of personal data. Last week it gave state officials a petition with more than 600,000 signatures, which should be enough to get it in front of voters in November.
Its website, CAPrivacy.org, is pretty much what you'd expect. There are creepy fictional videos portraying people's birth date, physical location and potentially embarrassing info about their online purchases (hair-loss prevention shampoo) and the apps they use (online poker). Below the videos, there's a motivating message: "It's your personal information. Take back control!"
There is one surprising aspect, though. Each time someone visits, software gleans what information it can about that visitor then sends that information to Facebook, including the person's IP address, what web pages the person was on before and after visiting, and so on. At this point, both the visitor and the website have basically lost control of what happens with that information.
There's nothing particularly unusual going on here. At least 79% of websites globally have one or more trackers that collect data on their users' online behavior, according to a 2017 study by Ghostery, a company that makes ad blockers and privacy software. More than 21% have more than 10 trackers. Google trackers run 60% of the time any web page loads; Facebook's run 27% of the time. Both companies have trackers running on CAPrivacy.org because the group put them there. It may be hard to find a clearer testament to how entrenched such tracking has become as the default setting of the entire internet.
Mactaggart argues that Google and Facebook are monopolies and that there's no real choice for someone looking to run an effective website or online advertising campaign. "We end up with this Faustian bargain," he said.
Facebook's critics, Californians for Consumer Privacy included, like to rail about the sale of personal data. But, as Facebook Chief Executive Mark Zuckerberg repeatedly pointed out during congressional hearings last month, Facebook's business isn't about selling personal data. An advertiser can't simply purchase a list of names and IP addresses.
Think of it more as a barter system. Websites share data to gain the ability to target ads or learn more about their own audiences. Facebook pixel, a tool for advertisers and developers, collects information such as a user's IP address, available demographic information and location data. Then the company sells ads that can be targeted using that data.
Website operators' inability to resist the temptation of these tools is vital to Facebook's and Google's domination of the internet — and a big part of how the giant companies have gathered so much information about practically every person online. "Everyone is using Google Analytics, and everyone is using the Facebook pixel," said Praneet Sharma, chief executive of Method Media Intelligence, an ad tech consultancy.
Both Facebook and Google oppose Mactaggart's ballot measure, although Facebook recently withdrew from a coalition actively pushing for its defeat. Facebook also has been trying to reassure people that it will offer them more control over their data. It says it's building a tool that would allow users to view which websites send data, then clear that history.
But any big changes to the default setting of the internet as Facebook and Google have built it up aren't going to be easy to come by. "It's just web architecture," Sharma said. "Privacy was an afterthought."