Raj Chetty, 33, Cambridge, Mass.

A professor in Harvard University's Department of Economics, Chetty studies how economic policies affect behavior. He has explored the impact of unemployment insurance on people looking for work and the effect of dividend tax cuts on corporate policy. In another study, Chetty and associates used school-district data to establish that students randomly placed under the tutelage of gifted teachers earned higher incomes and enjoyed better lives as adults.
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