Title IX timeline
June 23, 1972: Title IX of the Education Amendments Act enacted by Congress and signed into law by
Sept. 1973: Three years after permitting women, the
May 20, 1974: Sen. John Tower of Texas proposes the Tower Amendment, which would exempt revenue-producing from determinations of Title IX compliance. The amendment is rejected.
Sept. 1974: Old Dominion becomes first college in Virginia to offer athletic scholarships for women.
May 27, 1975:
Feb. 17, 1976:
Sept. 1977: University of Virginia,
Dec. 11, 1979: Department of Health, Education and Welfare issues policy interpretation on Title IX and intercollegiate athletics. Implementation of the so-called "three-prong test" is required for compliance.
1980: Department of Education is established and given oversight of Title IX compliance through the Office of Civil Rights.
Feb. 28, 1984: Supreme Court limits scope of Title IX in case of Grove City College v. Bell. Court rules that Title IX applies only in areas that receive direct federal funds, which removes athletics from equation.
March 22, 1988: Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987 enacted into law over veto of
1994: Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act requires that co-ed institutions receiving federal funds and that field intercollegiate athletic programs must disclose financial and participation information about those programs.
Nov. 21, 1996: A federal appeals court upholds a lower court's ruling in Cohen vs.
Dec. 17, 2001: Michigan's state high school athletic association is ruled to have discriminated against girls' sports in the court case, Communities for Equity vs.
Feb. 2002: The National Wrestling Coaches Association, College Gymnastics Association and the U.S. Track Coaches Association, along with several other groups representing male athletes, file suit, alleging that Title IX regulations and policies are unconstitutional.
May 14, 2004: D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals dismisses case brought by wrestling coaches. Rules that groups didn't prove Title IX caused elimination of men's programs, or that changing compliance would lead to their reinstatement.
March 17, 2005: The Department of Education issues a policy change that alters the way schools can be in compliance with Title IX. Schools may submit email surveys to female students to gauge their interest and abilities in certain sports. If surveys do not demonstrate sufficient interest or ability, no additional sports are needed, and schools are presumed to be in compliance with Title IX.
April 20, 2010: The Department of Education rescinds the previous policy change. Email surveys no longer an acceptable gauge for women's athletics interest or Title IX compliance.
April 4, 2011: The Department of Education issues policy guidance making clear that Title IX protections against sexual harassment and sexual violence apply to all students, including athletes. It addresses athletic departments, in particular, when it requires schools to use same procedures for sexual complaints involving athletes as the regular student body.
June 23, 2012: Fortieth anniversary of passage of Title IX.