Mark Penn, Hillary Clinton's one-time chief strategist, helped guide President Clinton to an easy reelection in 1996. But Penn was not versed in tough elections. Despite its fearsome reputation, many of the decision-makers in the Clinton campaign had never worked in a presidential primary. It showed not just in their underestimation of Iowa and other caucus states, but the attempt to run a general election campaign, aimed at the political center, in a contest dominated early on by the liberal voters.
Librado Romero / Associated Press
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