Deputies found Redmond O'Neal, 24, in possession of methamphetamine while a vial of the drug was found in Ryan O'Neal's bedroom, said Los Angeles County Sheriff's spokesman Steve Whitmore.
The father and son later were released on $10,000 bail each, he said.
The O'Neals were detained shortly after 7:15 a.m. during a probation search related to a case involving Redmond O'Neal. The two were taken to the sheriff's Malibu/Lost Hills station.
Redmond, whose mother is actress Farrah Fawcett, was arrested last year on charges related to carrying heroin and crystal meth while driving under the influence in Malibu.
He pleaded not guilty to drug possession and one misdemeanor DUI charge as part of a deal intended to help him avoid jail. He was sentenced to three years probation and $1,688 in fines for the DUI charge.
In another case from 2005, Redmond O'Neal was placed on probation stemming from an arrest on suspicion of methamphetamine and cocaine possession.
Ryan O'Neal, 67, was arrested last year on suspicion of assault with a deadly weapon and negligent discharge of a firearm after firing a gunshot during an argument with another son, Griffin O'Neal.
The actor told authorities that Griffin, 43, picked up a fireplace poker and started swinging it. Griffin grazed him four or five times and "aimed at my head, I ducked, he hit his own girlfriend in the head," Ryan O'Neal said at the time.
The actor said he fired a warning shot intended to scare his son.
The elder O'Neal was nominated for an Oscar for the 1970 movie "Love Story."