You accepted the job at the Wilson Center just after you won reelection by 25 percentage points. You've acknowledged the timing "wasn't great.'' How do you explain your decision to your constituents?
What is the job about?
It's like an intellectual candy store and has absolutely bipartisan credentials. It's like running a university, plus having a fabulous policy platform to debate the great issues of the day. Why I think the board hired me is to focus on a set of issues that cannot be addressed in depth in this town. Congress is polarized, the White House is enormously involved [with] exploding crises around the world, and there needs to be what Lindsey Graham [Republican senator from South Carolina] has called a safe political space in Washington where policymakers can debate and try to resolve some of the big issues.
How has Congress changed since you first got there?
I worked in Congress in the '70s for John Tunney [Democratic senator from California] [and] during the Nixon impeachment. Congress functioned. The impeachment was bipartisan; the vote was bipartisan. People came to Congress to legislate. The change started in the late '80s, and there's enough blame to go around.
If you want to pick two instances [of] what I think is a downward spiral to toxicity, the biggest drivers were, on the Republican side, [campaign consultant] Lee Atwater, who invented negative ads. And on the Democratic side, the confirmation hearings for [Reagan Supreme Court nominee] Robert Bork were shrilly partisan. I don't agree with his philosophy, but it was hard to argue that Bork wasn't qualified. That took the gloves off on both sides.
We have moved increasingly to a pretty awful place. I will miss many of my colleagues; what I will not miss is this toxic process. There's a huge irony. At the local level [Republicans and Democrats] all worked together and solved problems. [We] saved the Los Angeles Air Force Base; we fought against an offshore liquefied natural gas platform. Then I would arrive in Washington and hit the wall. Even approving the minutes of the prior day was a partisan act. That's a metaphor for how it works.
You were noted for your work on intelligence matters on Capitol Hill and were privy to many classified briefings. When you leave Congress, do they flash your memory clean, as in "Men in Black''?
I was very careful to put [classified information] in different boxes of my brain! I still have enormously strong ties to the intelligence community.
You were the ranking member on the Intelligence Committee for years.
That was the pivotal time post-9/11 when Congress learned a lot, including how flawed intelligence was on Iraq. I believed the intelligence, which is why I supported the authorization to use force in Iraq. I have said since, the intelligence was wrong and I was wrong.
You were criticized about enhanced interrogation techniques.
The general counsel of the CIA briefed me on the fact that there were [interrogation] videotapes -- I had believed there were just a couple. Turned out there were 90 of them. I wrote and said, "Do not destroy these videotapes." I also wrote a letter [saying] I want your assurance that the policy has been reviewed by the White House. In other words, I was asking for proof that this was what they had briefed me on. This was very early after 9/11 when there was enormous fear we would be attacked. I never got an answer, and they went ahead and destroyed the videotapes.
When some of this was declassified, I spoke out against waterboarding, called it torture. I also questioned whether enhanced interrogation is effective. I believe that building trust with the person you're interrogating is a far better way to get accurate information. I said all the time, Congress needs more briefings. Congress is an equal branch of government and needs full information.
You supported the defense industry presence in your district; you once joked that the C-17 transport plane is your fifth child.
I also called myself Boeing's mother!
Yet defense is a huge part of the budget and hence the deficit. How do you cut it? You've said we can't keep subsidizing a buggy-whip industry when there are advanced military systems, like satellites, that could save money.