This Labor Day, as unions dwindle in membership but increase as a topic in the public discourse, she puts on her capital-S Secretary Solis thinking cap.
Franklin D. Roosevelt and the first woman in a Cabinet. You're the first Latina. Why is she a heroine of yours?
She broke the mold. She engaged with things outside of the bubble, as they say here in D.C. She brought back policies from what she learned in the field, put them in legislation and, as a result, we have wonderful protections in the workplace.
And I work very much the same way. I'll go to the fields in Washington state. I'll go to the sweatshops in L.A. or New York. I'll visit people on assembly lines, in-home healthcare workers. I really believe in that.
At times you feel like you're the only voice speaking out to improve the working conditions of people, whether it's to be able to collectively bargain, to get adequate pay, to know that you can come home safe out of a coal mine.
We take for granted much of what we have, and if we erode those protections, we're going to see more casualties and more fatalities. People have to be reminded that unions played a very historic role in our economy. If you didn't have unions, you wouldn't have Saturdays and Sundays [off]; you wouldn't be paid a minimum wage, be guaranteed paid overtime and sick leave and a pension. Believe it or not, we still have these issues come up -- [businesses] still would like to take advantage.
Are you accomplishing what you want?
When I left Congress to take this position, I had no idea of [its] enormous reach. I can fund programs and implement and enforce laws -- and being able to help young people to give them a chance, that is so fulfilling to me.
Only about 7% of private sector jobs are unionized. The workforce includes contractors, part-timers, people who work at home and hold multiple jobs. How do you unionize a workforce like that? Do you even need to?
I don't know that every sector of the job market has to be union. If my competitor has a union business and I want to keep my employees happy, I want productivity up -- maybe I don't need a union but practices learned from labor unions have been carried over. You see it in Silicon Valley: workplace flexibility, paid medical and family leave. All these advances started at the bargaining table.
Public employee unions have been hammered in Wisconsin and elsewhere. Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, a union supporter, has taken issue with the teachers union. Is the burden now on unions to be more flexible about issues like pensions?
Again, there is a give and take. Look what happened in the automobile industry. The United Auto Workers had to sit down with management. We see it with teachers, firefighters, police officers, healthcare providers. We have to do a better information campaign about why pension plans were negotiated [the way they were].
[In] an economic crisis, you've got to switch gears. It doesn't mean you take advantage of employees. We want to make sure people have the ability to have pensions; let's do it together at the table because we've been working together for a century.
The administration's mission is job creation. Critics say government can't create jobs. What can your department do?
We're helping to incentivize investments through our jobs training programs in renewable energy and healthcare and IT, sectors we know are growing. California is the perfect place to begin that discussion. People who've lost their jobs in construction can do retrofitting and solar panel installation, turbine engines, windmills. People who lost jobs that are never going to come back are entering fields where you see growth. Some folks on the other side of the aisle don't necessarily agree with me, but we need energy independence and that's a part of it.
You also want to bring back manufacturing . But you can't just re-create what was there, right?
Let's bring back those positions [from overseas that] provide services in banking or communications. AT&T did it. Customer satisfaction rates very high, so the bottom line is, if that's what's going to keep them competitive, then that's what a business is going to do. Jobs are coming back here because we can actually minimize time for production and cut [shipping] costs.
Unemployment and labor needs seem mismatched. Agricultural jobs go begging, and high-tech companies are asking for more visas to bring in talent from overseas.