The lame-duck session mixes a dispirited Republican Party and a Democratic Party that knows it will soon have the upper hand in both chambers — a potentially combustible cocktail.
At minimum, Congress must pass a temporary spending bill to keep the government running until the next Congress takes office. Getting much else accomplished could be difficult.
"Democrats won't allow anything to pass they don't like, and Republicans have little interest in starting the Democratic reign early," said Thomas Mann, a congressional scholar at the centrist Brookings Institution think tank in Washington. "It could be a very short lame-duck session."
As the old Congress wraps up, the freshman lawmakers will arrive. They won't be sworn in until January, but they will meet with President Bush, pick up IDs, and learn such fine points as the proper chamber attire and the location of the members-only gym. And they will help choose leaders.
Two House races — one Democratic and one Republican — could reveal a lot about how the parties will position themselves in the next session.
Current Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-San Francisco) is poised to become the first female speaker. The choice for House majority leader, the No. 2 slot, is between current Minority Whip Steny H. Hoyer (D-Md.), a moderate, and Rep. John P. Murtha (D-Pa.), whose call for U.S. withdrawal from Iraq made him a favorite of party liberals.
Hoyer's supporters, including some of the new centrist Democrats, point to his tireless efforts to get them elected — he visited 80 districts and raised more than $8 million. Murtha's backers say the former Marine's stance on the war was a significant factor in the Democratic victory.
On Sunday, Pelosi endorsed Murtha, long an ally, praising him "for all you have done for Democrats."
"Your leadership gave so many Americans, including respected military leaders, the encouragement to voice their own disapproval at a failed policy," she said in a letter to Murtha, citing his call for troop withdrawals.
Hoyer issued a statement saying he respected Pelosi's decision, "as the two are very close," but said the majority of the caucus supported him.
On the Republican side, three men are battling to be the next House minority leader: current Majority Leader John A. Boehner of Ohio, whom some may want to blame for the party's loss of the majority, and conservative Reps. Mike Pence of Indiana and Joe L. Barton of Texas. (Current Speaker J. Dennis Hastert of Illinois is not seeking a leadership position.)
The first order of business for the lame-duck Congress, though, is to ensure that the government has money to function. In the current Senate, Minority Leader Harry Reid (D-Nev.) has told Majority Leader Bill Frist (R-Tenn.) that Democrats will work with Republicans to clear spending bills for fiscal year 2007 (which began Oct. 1) that have "reasonable funding levels."
If Congress cannot finish the individual spending bills, lawmakers are likely to approve a "continuing resolution" that would keep the government operating mostly at 2006 levels until the new Congress begins.
The session could also extend some tax breaks that have expired or are due to expire; approve a U.S.-Vietnam trade pact in advance of Bush's visit to Hanoi on Friday; allow new offshore oil drilling; and pass a nuclear deal with India, a Bush administration priority.
Senate Republican leaders hope to win quick confirmation of Bush's Defense secretary nominee, former CIA chief Robert M. Gates. Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld resigned last week.
And the White House wants the Senate to confirm John R. Bolton as United Nations ambassador — his recess appointment expires when this Congress adjourns — but he faces Democratic opposition, and last week a key outgoing Republican on the foreign relations committee, Lincoln Chafee of Rhode Island, said he would not support him.
Another Bush priority also hangs in the balance: legislation that would rewrite domestic wiretap laws to give investigators the power to monitor e-mail and phone communications between suspected terrorists overseas and people in the United States without advance court approval. The House passed such a bill before the election, but the Senate recessed without taking action.
"We hope that the Democrats would see the utility in having this critical tool in the war on terror," White House Counselor Dan Bartlett told "Fox News Sunday." Reid told CBS' "Face the Nation" that "we'll be happy to take a look at it" but would not say whether action would be taken now.