Peters, who made contact with another truck and forced a caution near the midpoint of the race, pushed into second place during the final 20 laps, then passed James Buescher in lap 194 of the final NASCAR trucks race to be held at Lucas Oil Raceway.
Buescher finished second. The 21-year-old has never won a race, but finished in the top 10 for the ninth straight race.
Ron Hornaday, who had won the race the previous two years, finished fifth.
Johnny Sauter, the points leader, finished 23rd but remained at the top of the standings.
Austin Dillon, the polesitter who was coming off a win in Nashville, was ninth.