Wesley Matthews contributed 24 points for the Blazers (32-11), who snapped a two-game losing streak coming off a 2-2 road trip. The Blazers have not lost three straight this season.
Wilson Chandler had 18 points for Denver (20-21), which has lost four of their last five games after a five-game winning streak.
The Trail Blazers trailed by as many as 15 points in the third quarter before pulling to within 91-90 on Matthews' turn-around fadeaway before taking the lead on his 15-foot jumper.
The teams wrestled for control, but Aldridge capped the victory by scoring the Trail Blazers' last 15 points.
Chandler missed a jumper with eight seconds left and Aldridge made two free throws for the final margin.