Gordon, 23, reportedly tested positive for alcohol in December following the Browns' final game of the season.
He missed the first 10 games of the 2014 season after testing positive for marijuana in May. In 2013, he tested positive for codeine and was banned for two games.
Following the 2015 season, Gordon will have to apply for reinstatement.
"As we have conveyed, we are disappointed to once again be at this point with Josh. Throughout his career we have tried to assist him in getting support like we would with any member of our organization," Browns General Manager Ray Farmer said in a statement. "Unfortunately our efforts have not resonated with him. It is evident that Josh needs to make some substantial strides to live up to the positive culture we are trying to build this football team upon."
While Gordon's one-year ban wasn't unexpected, it does hurt the Browns organization going forward as it also tries to determine who will be its quarterback next season.
The Browns selected Gordon in the second-round of the supplemental draft in 2012 after the wide receiver missed his 2011 college season after he was dismissed by Baylor after testing positive for marijuana.
He transferred to Utah but ultimately elected to declare for the draft.
Gordon was a first team All-Pro in 2013, racking up 1,646 receiving yards and nine touchdowns despite missing two games. He was also named to the
Now, despite his potential, he's put himself and the Browns in a tricky situation going forward.
"Our hope is that this suspension affords Josh the opportunity to gain some clarity in determining what he wants to accomplish moving forward and if he wants a career in the National Football League," Farmer said.