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Arnold Toynbee
Labor Day editorials of the past

Labor Day falls in the midst of a presidential campaign in which rising unemployment is a prime domestic focus. Democrats prefer to blame trade policy, while Republicans often point the finger at high oil prices. Seldom mentioned these days are automation and immigrants, although half a century ago, they were considered among the key causes of joblessness.The Times, throughout its 127-year history, has proposed a host of solutions for unemployment. At the turn of the century, the paper's answer was straightforward: Idle hordes in Eastern cities need simply move West. The same logic applied to poverty-stricken masses in England, who needed only to board a steamer for Canada -- where at...

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