Subcommittee investigators said Enron - struggling with a secretly crumbling balance sheet - obtained financing of $8.5 billion over nine years from Citigroup Inc. and J.P. Morgan Chase & Co., which took in hefty fees and interest payments.
Shares of Citigroup Inc. and J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. plunged yesterday, erasing $58 billion in combined market value this week, as the banks disputed the allegations.
The investigative subcommittee of the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee reviewed a million pages of documents, most of them subpoenaed, and interviewed dozens of witnesses from Enron and its Wall Street investment banks.
Some banks actively aided Enron in its dodgy accounting in return for big fees and favors in other deals, investigator Robert L. Roach told a subcommittee hearing.
"The evidence indicates that Enron would not have been able to engage in the extent of the accounting deceptions it did, involving billions of dollars, were it not for the active participation of major financial institutions willing to go along with and even expand upon Enron's activities," Roach testified.
Some of the banks allowed investors to rely on Enron financial statements they knew were misleading, said Roach, a counsel for the subcommittee.
The banks used complex financial transactions to boost Enron's anemic cash flow to match its profit growth on paper, according to lawmakers.
The Houston energy-trading company recorded the money from the bank loans as prepaid trades of natural gas and other commodities with an entity based in the Channel Islands off Britain.
Roach said Citigroup , the nation's largest financial institution, and J.P. Morgan, also pitched the deals to other companies.
Citigroup "shopped" the Enron-style deals to 14 companies, selling them to at least three, Roach testified.
Enron, which filed for bankruptcy protection in December, taking the investments of millions of people with it, used a web of thousands of off-balance-sheet partnerships to hide about $1 billion in debt from investors and federal regulators.
If not for the deals with the banks, Enron's debt would have been $14 billion in 2000 rather than the $10 billion the company reported, and its cash flow would have been half of the $3.2 billion it reported, according to subcommittee investigators.
If the true picture had been known, it would have put downward pressure on Enron's stock price and on its ratings from agencies such as Moody's Investors Service and Standard & Poor's.
Officials of those agencies, testifying at yesterday's hearing, said they were unaware of the transactions with the banks and that Enron misled them and withheld information.
"Why didn't the watchdogs bark?" Democratic Sen. Joseph I. Lieberman of Connecticut asked the credit-rating officials.
In a 1998 e-mail, a J.P. Morgan Chase executive in Houston wrote, "Enron loves these deals."
Enron officials "are able to hide ... debt" from Wall Street analysts, he wrote.