The hexagonal orange pills some users call "bupe" are championed as an exceptional treatment for heroin and pain-pill addicts. Federal officials have spent millions of dollars to help create and promote buprenorphine, and are encouraging thousands of private doctors to prescribe it.
But making buprenorphine widely available has also made it easy for patients to sell the narcotic illegally, leading to growing abuse, an investigation by The Sun found. Some people have died after misusing it with other drugs.
Heroin addicts hardened by years on city streets, and youthful buyers in suburban and rural areas, are using it to get high - sometimes in dangerous combination with other substances - and to tide them over when they can't obtain heroin or other narcotics.
The drug, mainly prescribed in a form called Suboxone, is intended to be dissolved under the tongue. But some abusers are crushing the pills to snort or inject buprenorphine, a dangerous practice that medical experts believed could be deterred by a chemical safeguard in Suboxone.
Federal officials didn't anticipate such abuses when they joined forces with Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Inc., a newly formed Richmond, Va.-based subsidiary of a British Drug company, and spent at least $26 million to bring Suboxone to market. With congressional approval, officials began rolling it out in 2003 as the centerpiece of a bold experiment to steer addiction treatment from restrictive clinics to doctors' offices.
Suboxone holds the promise of treating addiction as a chronic health condition, like treating diabetes with insulin. The pills relieve addicts' cravings for opiates and the sickness that comes on when they stop using them. Many say the drug makes them feel "normal."
Sen. Carl Levin, a Michigan Democrat, referred to Suboxone last year as a "miracle drug" as Congress increased how many addicts physicians can treat with it. In Maryland, health officials swiftly embraced Suboxone as a major new treatment for heroin addiction, one of Baltimore's most vexing and debilitating public health problems.
Yet Suboxone is starting to cause some of the very problems it was created to solve. Illegal sales and abuse remain far below other abused narcotics but are on the rise, especially where the drug is most heavily prescribed. Among the newspaper's findings:
Some patients sell a portion of their take-home pills to raise cash or buy drugs, including heroin, according to police and health officials in several states. In some cases, taxpayers are subsidizing some of this illicit trade through the Medicaid health care plan, which in Baltimore pays many addicts' Suboxone bills, often at a cost of $300 or more a month.
The street trade has flared in New England, which has the nation's highest rate of Suboxone prescribing. In the Boston suburb of Quincy, Suboxone is "popping up everywhere," a detective said. In Baltimore, the pills sometimes called "Stop Signs" and "Subbies" have been sold near Lexington Market, Oldtown Mall and elsewhere.
Reckitt Benckiser told the newspaper that it knew of 13 deaths since 2005 related to taking buprenorphine with other substances. The Sun identified two deaths in Vermont that the company didn't know about. One was a 30-year-old Vermont construction worker; the other was a man who worked at a ski resort. There is uncertainty about the total number of deaths, because most medical examiners, including Maryland's, have no standard test for detecting buprenorphine in overdose cases.
Suboxone's failure to deliver on one of its major selling points - that addicts wouldn't inject it - is raising concern among doctors who prescribe the drug. In October, an advisory panel that helps Reckitt Benckiser track misuse of Suboxone said that it might ask the company to consider changing the drug's formula.
Rolley E. Johnson, vice president for scientific and regulatory affairs for Reckitt Benckiser, said that some degree of abuse is inevitable. "Anything that has opioid-like effects, which buprenorphine does, can and will be abused by those people seeking that effect," said Johnson, a former Johns Hopkins buprenorphine researcher.
The company wants the public to have realistic expectations. Spokeswoman Harriet Ullman said: "We cringe every time we hear people say Suboxone is a miracle or a magic bullet. No drug is."
The drug's benefitsSuboxone's benefits are still being assessed as more addicts receive it. Experts in addiction and doctors who prescribe it say that the drug is extremely effective in helping stabilize addicts as they go through the counseling, rehabilitation and training they often need to turn their lives around.
Suboxone works for people "who are sick and tired of the ravages of addiction," said Dr. H. Westley Clarke of the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Only small numbers of patients are peddling their medicine illegally, said Clarke, director of the agency's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, which oversees the buprenorphine program. "Diversion doesn't appear to be substantial at this point," he said of the illegal selling, adding, "It's hard to design a system that's 100 percent foolproof."