The correlation between diet and cancer is not new. In 1982 the National Research Council, after a study of the relationship of diet and nutrition to cancer, developed a set of interim dietary guidelines to help consumers make healthful food choices and hopefully reduce the number of persons at risk.
In 1984, the American Cancer Society introduced an official set of dietary guidelines to aid the public in the fight against the disease. The society's guidelines are: Avoid obesity; cut down on total fat intake; eat more high-fiber foods such as whole-grain cereals, fruits and vegetables; include foods rich in vitamins A and C in the daily diet; include cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower in the diet; be moderate in consumption of alcoholic beverages and be moderate in consumption of salt cured, smoked or nitrite-cured foods.
Many Not Following Recommendations
Yet, in spite of these recommendations, Americans are still not eating enough fruits, vegetables and whole-grain cereals, according to Blossom Patterson, lead investigator of a new National Cancer Institute study of eating patterns in this country.
Published in the March, 1988, issue of the American Journal of Public Health, the study showed that more than 40% of the U.S. adult population did not eat a single fruit and about 20% did not eat a vegetable on the day of the survey. Many of those queried also ignored high-fiber cereals and whole-grain breads--more than 80% did not consume any high-fiber cereals or whole-grain bread on the day of the interview. And, more than 40% ate at least one serving of lunch meat or bacon the survey day.
Because of these discouraging figures, the National Cancer Institute has expanded upon the society's dietary guidelines, including suggestions for how to incorporate the recommendations into daily life styles, and has set up the Cancer Information Service of California, a program designed to make the latest cancer information available to the public. The bilingual service is currently servicing more than 2,000 callers per month, at (800) 4-CANCER. Spanish-speaking staff members are available from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. only.
The institute recommendations suggest that consumers:
--Double the amount of fiber currently eaten to include at least 20 grams a day by including whole-grain breads, bran cereals, brown rice, beans, potatoes and pasta. Some examples of the fiber content of foods are: 6 grams per 1 ear boiled corn on the cob; 8 grams per cup dried apricots; 3 grams per 1/2 cup cooked broccoli; 2 grams per slice whole-wheat bread; 4 grams per 1 ounce bran flake cereal.
--Eat foods low in fat by choosing lower-fat poultry and fish, water-packed canned fish, lean beef, veal, lamb and pork cuts with little or no marbling or visible fat; low-fat or skim-milk dairy products and diet or low-fat salad dressings and fruit instead of high-fat desserts.
--Increase intake of fruits and vegetables containing vitamins A and C. These include fresh or frozen dark-green and leafy vegetables and deep-yellow vegetables and fruits.
--Eat a well-balanced diet selecting from each of the major food groups: fruits and vegetables; breads, cereals and grains; meat, poultry, eggs and fish; and milk cheese and yogurt.
--Maintain proper body weight by increasing physical activity, eating smaller portions and eating fewer "empty-calorie" foods (sugar and sweets) and limiting consumption of alcohol.
--Drink alcohol in moderation, limiting intake to one or two drinks per day: 1.5 ounces hard liquor, 4 ounces wine or 12 ounces beer.
--Use low-fat methods of food preparation instead of frying; bake or oven-broil, boil or stew, skimming off fat; trim all visible fat from meats before and after cooking; use non-stick cookware and use vegetable coating spray in place of margarine, butter and oils; substitute broth for grease in cooking main dishes and accompaniments; season vegetables with herbs, spices and lemon juice in place of salts and salad dressings.
STIR-FRY VEGETABLES WITH BULGUR
1/4 cup oil
1 cup bulgur
1 cup thinly sliced carrots
2 cups broccoli florets
1 clove garlic, minced
1 teaspoon oregano leaves, crushed
1 tablespoon sesame seeds
1 3/4 cups vegetable juice cocktail
1 cup thinly sliced zucchini
1 cup sliced small mushrooms
1 cup shredded Swiss cheese
1/2 cup sliced green onions
Heat oil in 10-inch skillet or wok and cook bulgur, carrots, broccoli, garlic, oregano and sesame seeds, stirring quickly and frequently about 2 minutes. Add vegetable juice, zucchini and mushrooms. Heat to boiling, then reduce heat to low. Simmer, covered, 15 minutes or until all liquid is absorbed, stirring occasionally.
Stir in cheese and garnish with onions. Makes 12 servings.
TUNA WITH MARINATED VEGETABLES
1 cup vegetable juice cocktail
2 tablespoons soy sauce
1 tablespoon toasted sesame seeds
1 tablespoon vinegar
2 teaspoons honey
2 cups cut green beans
1 cup sliced carrots
1 cup diagonally sliced celery
1 cup quartered medium mushrooms
1/2 cup diced pimiento
2 (7-ounce) cans water-packed tuna, drained and flaked
Stir together juice, soy sauce, sesame seeds, vinegar and honey in 1-quart saucepan over medium heat. Bring to boil, then reduce heat to low and simmer 5 minutes, stirring occasionally.
In another 1-quart saucepan over medium heat, cook green beans in boiling water, 2 minutes or until tender-crisp. Drain and rinse with cold water.
Arrange beans, carrots, celery, mushrooms and pimiento in 13x9-inch baking dish. Pour vegetable juice mixture over all. Cover and refrigerate 6 hours or more, stirring occasionally.
Before serving, stir in tuna. Makes 5 servings.
STOPWATCH PASTA SALAD
6 ounces buttermilk dressing
1/4 cup reduced-calorie mayonnaise
1 teaspoon Beaumonde seasoning
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon black pepper
1 1/3 cups corkscrew pasta
2 cups cubed cooked chicken
1 1/2 cups sliced celery
1/4 cup chopped red onion
1/4 cup chopped green pepper
1 (11-ounce) can Mandarin oranges, drained
1 (8-ounce) can sliced water chestnuts, drained
1 cup seedless green grapes, halved lengthwise
Combine dressing, mayonnaise, seasoning, salt and pepper and refrigerate, covered, overnight.
Meanwhile, cook pasta according to package directions. Drain and cool. Combine with chicken, celery, onion, pepper, oranges, chestnuts and grapes. Toss with dressing, blending carefully and refrigerate several hours to chill. Makes 8 servings.
FIT 'N' FIBER MUFFINS
2 eggs, beaten
1 1/3 cups nonfat milk
1/4 cup honey
1/4 cup oil
1/4 cup finely chopped onion
1 cup whole wheat flour
1 cup cornmeal
4 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 cup sunflower seeds, shelled
Combine eggs, milk, honey, oil and onion in medium mixer bowl. Add flour, cornmeal, baking powder and salt. Stir until moistened. (Batter will be very thin.) Spoon into paper-lined muffin cups, filling 2/3 full. Sprinkle with sunflower seeds. Bake at 400 degrees 18 to 20 minutes. Makes 12 to 18 muffins.
WHOLESOME WHEAT BREAD
2 cups bread flour
1 cup whole wheat flour
1/4 cup oats
1 package quick rise yeast
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup cottage cheese, room temperature
2 tablespoons oil
1 egg, room temperature
1/4 cup honey
1/2 cup hot water
1 egg white
Combine flours, oats, yeast and salt in bowl of food processor fitted with metal blade. Process 20 seconds
Combine cheese, oil, egg and honey and add all at once to processor. Replace lid and with machine running, pour water slowly through feed tube in steady stream as fast as flour mixture will absorb it. Continue processing until dough starts to form ball, about 60 seconds. (Dough should clean inside of bowl. If not, add additional bread flour, 1 teaspoon at time, through feed tube and continue processing 5 to 10 seconds.) Remove dough from bowl and place in lightly floured plastic bag. Let rise until doubled, about 30 seconds.
Punch down dough. Shape into round loaf and place on greased glass pie pan, lightly sprinkled with cornmeal. Cover with oiled plastic wrap and let rise until doubled, about 1 hour. Brush loaf with egg white, sprinkle with wheat germ and bake at 375 degrees 35 to 40 minutes. If too dark, cover loosely with foil during last 5 to 10 minutes baking time. Remove from pan and cool on wire rack. Makes 1 (2-pound) loaf.