Only six teams have won 110 games or more in a season: the 1906 Cubs, the 1909 Pirates, the Yankees (1927 and 1998), the 1954 Indians and the 2001 Mariners.
Even if the Dodgers are able to keep up their pace, a good record is no guarantee of success in the playoffs. The current franchise record-holder, the 1953 Dodgers, lost the World Series after winning 105 games. And with more rounds of playoffs to survive since the addition of the Division Series in 1981, it's even harder to win it all.
Sources: Major League Baseball, Baseball-Reference.com, baseball field icon by Artem Kovyazin from the Noun Project
Credits: Animation by Swetha Kannan