The left-hander was put on the 15-day disabled list May 11. He was examined by Dr. James Andrews last week and had his knee drained. Sabathia also received a cortisone and stem cell injection Thursday to treat a degenerative cartilage condition.
The team confirmed Monday that the procedure means Sabathia probably will remain sidelined through at least the end of June, maybe longer.
Chicago White Sox slugger Jose Abreu will continue to rest his inflamed left ankle after an MRI exam showed no structural damage.
The 27-year-old rookie left Saturday's game against Houston in the seventh inning with a limp. He was put on the disabled list Sunday.
Manager Robin Ventura characterized the results of Monday's MRI exam as "good news" but declined to provide a timetable for Abreu's return.
Tejada is serving a 105-game suspension he began last year for testing positive for an amphetamine.
He would be eligible to play in the Marlins' 65th game, which would be June 10 at Texas if they don't have any other games rained out and postponed until after that date. He could appear in minor league games at double A or lower beginning May 31.