Musharraf's pledge to hold elections in less than nine weeks, in adherence to the original schedule, won quick praise from the Bush administration, with Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice calling it a welcome sign.
But human rights groups, democracy activists and opposition leaders questioned whether a campaign that took place while basic liberties were curtailed could be considered free and fair.
The general's often-combative remarks, delivered at a news conference at his official residence, appeared consistent with a pattern of behavior that had emerged in recent days: a harsh and unyielding stance on domestic dissent, coupled with statements meant to ease the concerns of Western governments, particularly his chief patron, the United States.
Appearing before hundreds of Pakistani and foreign reporters for the first time since his Nov. 3 declaration, Musharraf forcefully defended the emergency decree, railed against the senior judges he had dismissed, described thousands of jailed activists as a threat to law and order, and suggested that independent Pakistani news channels now silenced by him had abetted terrorists.
Even as he repeated his contention that the battle against Islamic militants was the main motive for the decree, the Pakistani leader delivered a lengthy diatribe against deposed Chief Justice Iftikhar Mohammed Chaudhry, accusing him of misdeeds ranging from corruption to "humiliating" treatment of government officials.
Chaudhry was fired in one of the president's first acts under the emergency decree. The justice had emerged as a key obstacle to Musharraf's being elected to a new presidential term without giving up his post as military chief.
With an edge of anger in his voice, Musharraf ruled out the possibility that Chaudhry or dozens of other senior judges who refused to swear allegiance to his government would get their jobs back.
"Those who would not take an oath are gone," he said flatly. "They are no more judges."
Musharraf, who appeared at the news conference in a dark suit and tie rather than his military fatigues, set no date for relinquishing his role as army chief. But he said he hoped to do so after the Supreme Court, which is now packed with loyalists, validates his election last month as president by lawmakers.
Opponents had challenged that vote in court, saying that he should not have been elected by outgoing assemblies and that the constitution forbade his election while he was still head of the military.
"I wish I could give a specific date for taking my oath as civilian president," Musharraf said, adding that he expected to retire from the military soon.
He was similarly vague about any end to the authoritarian provisions adopted under the decree. "I do understand that the emergency has to be lifted, but cannot give a date," he said. Aides have said it could last a month or more.
Former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, who is keeping open the option of an eventual power-sharing arrangement with Musharraf, called the announcement of a January vote a "first positive step," but noted that emergency rule would make electioneering difficult. Under the decree, large gatherings are banned and free-speech guarantees abolished.
Bhutto flew Sunday to the eastern city of Lahore to prepare for what she says will be a massive road rally beginning Tuesday as she travels by car back to Islamabad, an event authorities say they will not allow. She was greeted at the Lahore airport by hundreds of supporters waving the red, green and black flags of her Pakistan People's Party.
The other major opposition party, which has urged Bhutto to sever all ties with Musharraf, was far more critical of the latest election plans.
"Holding elections in an emergency will be a mockery of democracy," said Ahsan Iqbal, a spokesman for the Pakistan Muslim League-N, the party of exiled former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.
Democracy advocates, who had expressed fears of vote rigging and intimidation even before the emergency declaration, also said they were dismayed by the notion of a campaign conducted under such restrictions.