You probably already know the Passover story: How Moses asked Pharoah to let his enslaved people leave Egypt, and how Moses' god punished Pharaoh — bringing about the death of the Egyptians' firstborn sons even as he passed over Jewish households. You might even know the ancillary tale of the Passover orange. How much truth is there in these stories? At synagogues this time of year, myth collides with fact, tradition with changing values. Negotiating this collision is the puzzle of modern religion.
Passover is a holiday of debate, reflection and conversation. Last Passover, as my family and I and the rest of the congregation waited for the feast at our Reform Jewish temple, our rabbi prompted us: "Does it matter if the story of Passover isn't literally true?"
Most people seemed to shake their heads. No, it doesn't matter.
I was imagining the Egyptians' sons. I am an outsider to the temple. My wife and teenage son are Jewish, but I am not. My 10-year-old daughter, adopted from China at age 1, describes herself as "half Jewish."
I nodded my head. Yes, it does matter if the Passover story is literally true.
"Okay, Eric, why does it matter?" Rabbi Suzanne Singer handed me the microphone.
I hadn't planned to speak. "It matters," I said, "because if the story is literally true, then a god who works miracles really exists. It matters if there is such a god or not. I don't think I would like the moral character of that god, who kills innocent Egyptians. I'm glad there is no such god."
"It is odd," I added, "that we have this holiday that celebrates the death of children, so contrary to our values now."
The microphone went around, others in the temple responding to me. Values change, they said. Ancient war sadly and necessarily involved the death of children. We're really celebrating the struggle for freedom for everyone….
Singer asked if I had more to say in response. My son leaned toward me. "Dad, you don't have anything more to say." I took his cue and shut my mouth.
Then the Seder plates arrived with the oranges on them.
Seder plates have six labeled spots: two bitter herbs, charoset (fruit and nuts), parsley, a lamb bone, a boiled egg, each with symbolic value. There is no labeled spot for an orange.
The first time I saw an orange on a Seder plate, I was told this story about it: A woman was studying to be a rabbi. An orthodox rabbi told her that a woman belongs on the bimah (pulpit) like an orange belongs on the Seder plate. When she became a rabbi, she put an orange on the plate.
A wonderful story — a modern, liberal story. More comfortable than the original Passover story for a liberal Reform Judaism congregation like ours, proud of our woman rabbi. The orange is an act of defiance, a symbol of a new tradition that celebrates gender equality.
Does it matter if it's true?
Here's what actually happened. Dartmouth Jewish studies professor Susannah Heschel was speaking to a Jewish group at Oberlin College in Ohio. The students had written a story in which a girl asks a rabbi if there is room for lesbians in Judaism, and the rabbi rises in anger, shouting, "There's as much room for a lesbian in Judaism as there is for a crust of bread on the Seder plate!" Heschel, inspired by the students but reluctant to put anything as unkosher as bread on the Seder plate, used a tangerine instead.
The orange, then, is not a wild act of defiance, but already a compromise and modification. The shouting rabbi is not an actual person but an imagined, simplified foe.
It matters that it's not true. From the two stories of the orange, we learn the central lesson of Reform Judaism: that myths are cultural inventions built to suit the values of their day, idealizations and simplifications, changing as our values change — but also that only limited change is possible in a tradition-governed institution. An orange, but not a crust of bread.
In a way, my daughter and I are also oranges: a new type of presence in a Jewish congregation, without a marked place, welcomed this year, unsure we belong, at risk of rolling off.
In the car on the way home, my son scolded me: "How could you have said that, Dad? There are people in the congregation who take the Torah literally, very seriously! You should have seen how they were looking at you, with so much anger. If you'd said more, they would practically have been ready to lynch you."
Due to the seating arrangement, I had been facing away from most of the congregation. I hadn't seen those faces. Were they really so outraged? Was my son telling me the truth on the way home that night? Or was he creating a simplified myth of me?
In belonging to an old religion, we honor values that are no longer entirely ours. We celebrate events that no longer quite make sense. We can't change the basic tale of Passover. But we can add liberal commentary to better recognize Egyptian suffering, and we can add a new celebration of equality.
Although the new celebration, the orange, is an unstable thing atop an older structure that resists change, we can work to ensure that it remains. It will remain only if we can speak the story of it compellingly enough to give our new values too the power of myth.
Eric Schwitzgebel is a professor of philosophy at UC Riverside and the author of "Perplexities of Consciousness." He blogs at the Splintered Mind.