Suleman failed to disclose nearly $30,000 in income from personal appearances and video royalties, according to a criminal complained filed by the Los Angeles County district attorney's office.
Suleman, 38, drew international attention in 2009 as only the second U.S. woman to deliver a healthy set of octuplets. She was widely criticized because she had used in vitro fertilization to become pregnant and was on public assistance at the time.
The criminal complaint alleges that Suleman, who has 14 children, illegally received $6,667 from the CalWorks financial assistance program and $9,814 from the CalFresh food aid program during the first six months of 2013.
Prosecutors charged her with one count of aid by misrepresentation and two counts of perjury by false application for aid. The charges carry a maximum sentence of five years, eight months in custody.
Suleman is scheduled to be arraigned in court Friday, when prosecutors are expected to ask that bail be set at $25,000.