Jin's death leaves one of China's largest and wealthiest dioceses in a deeply unsettled state, underscoring continuing tensions generated by the ruling Communist Party's insistence on tightly controlling all organized religions.
Jin's first anointed successor as acting bishop, Joseph Xing Wenzhi, resigned last year for reasons still unclear, and his replacement, Thaddeus Ma Daqin, was placed under house arrest at Shanghai's Sheshan Seminary after enraging party officials by renouncing his membership in the party-controlled Catholic association.
Born into a Catholic family in Shanghai in June 1916, Jin was ordained as a Jesuit priest in 1938 and spent several years studying in France, Germany and other European nations. Returning to his native Shanghai in 1951, Jin was imprisoned for nearly two decades under Communist China's founder, Mao Zedong, who ordered Chinese Catholics to cut their ties with the
Jin was paroled in 1972 and put to work as a translator based on his knowledge of several European languages. Following Mao's death in 1976, he was formally released and named Shanghai bishop in 1988 by the Patriotic Assn. Although the Vatican recognized another priest as Shanghai bishop, Jin worked to recover church property and rebuild congregations, achieving a remarkable degree of independence from the authorities in Beijing.
China has an estimated 8 million to 12 million Catholics, about half of whom worship in congregations outside the control of the Patriotic Assn.
Jin served on the official advisory body to China's rubber-stamp parliament as well as the Patriotic Assn., making him a frequent target of critics who argued he was too cooperative with the authorities.