These recommendations are based on guidelines from the American Urological Assn., the American Heart Assn., the American Cancer Society and the American Diabetes Assn. (For personal advice, talk to your doctor.)
* Physical Exam: A simple screening by a primary physician should be conducted every two years until a man turns 40 or 45, and then annually.
* Prostate Cancer: a rectal exam and PSA (prostate-specific antigen) blood test each year after the age of 50. For African American men and those with a family history of prostate cancer, annual screenings should start at 40. Not recommended for men who have a life expectancy of less than 10 years.
* Colorectal Cancer: a fecal occult blood test each year beginning at age 50 to detect blood in the stool. A full colon examination should be conducted every five to 10 years. Those with a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps should discuss more frequent screenings with their doctor.
* Heart Disease: a cholesterol screening every two years until the age of 40 or 45; then annual cholesterol screenings. Cardiac exams are not necessary until symptoms of heart disease appear.
* Diabetes: Adults age 45 and over should start being screened for diabetes every three years, and tested even younger if suffering from obesity, high cholesterol or high blood pressure, or if they have a family history of diabetes.