In a Russian assault on Ukraine, would mud matter?

Russian tanks rolling over snowy ground
Russian tanks roll over snowy ground during a military exercise in the Rostov region last month.
(Russian Defense Ministry Press Service)

The Russian expression “tanks don’t fear mud” is common enough that it’s been the title of a short-lived Russian television series and can be found stenciled on car windows.

And it’s yet another reason why any Russian decision to invade Ukraine is likely to depend very little upon fears that a spring thaw will hinder tanks from crossing boggy ground. Russia’s military has, in addition to tanks and other armored vehicles that are well-equipped for mud, a range of fighter jets and missiles that are the hallmarks of any modern military.

President Biden has said that Russia is essentially in position for an invasion of Ukraine as long as “the ground is frozen above Kyiv,” the Ukrainian capital, which is only about 50 miles from the border of Belarus, a key Russian ally. It’s not the first time a U.S. official has invoked Russia’s need for frozen ground to stage an incursion.


But analysts trying to figure out how Russia could invade say any assault would start with air and missile strikes, likely targeting Ukrainian military sites.

If Russian President Vladimir Putin decides to invade, “then it won’t be tanks or ships in the vanguard, but rather aircraft and missile forces. The first targets for them will be air-defense systems and the missile defense force, command posts, critical infrastructure, after which the advantage of Russian forces in the air and upper hand on land and sea are guaranteed,” said Mykola Sunhurovskyi, a military analyst at the Kyiv-based Razumkov Center think tank.

Some Ukrainian analysts have acknowledged that the country’s air defenses are insufficient in case of a massive Russian assault. Kyiv has prodded its Western allies to provide the country with modern air-defense systems in addition to ground combat weapons provided by the U.S., Britain and others.

With Russian troops just miles away, the residents of a small Ukrainian village wonder if a possible invasion has its sights set on them.

Feb. 12, 2022

Sunhurovskyi said that “the only deterrent is the West’s position and the readiness of millions of Ukrainians to fight to the end.”

The Kremlin, which has denied having any Ukraine invasion plans, has scoffed at an argument that it wants to see the ground frozen to launch an attack on Ukraine. Ukrainian officials agree that frozen ground or mud isn’t an issue.

Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov cited the argument while castigating British Foreign Secretary Liz Truss following their icy talks in Moscow on Thursday.


“They say that Russia is waiting for the ground to freeze like a stone so that tanks could easily roll into Ukrainian territory,” Lavrov told reporters. “The ground was like that with our British colleagues, with numerous facts we cited bouncing off them.”

Plenty of residents of Kyiv don’t seem to think their capital is on borrowed time, but some are girding for a potential Russian invasion anyway.

Feb. 4, 2022

Konstantin Sivkov, a Russian military analyst, said that even if there were a ground incursion, Russian battle tanks are significantly lighter than Western armored vehicles and don’t get bogged down.

“Our tanks are much better suited for advancing on muddy terrain — there is nothing to worry about,” Sivkov said in remarks carried by the FAN news outlet. “A thaw can only stop Western tanks.”