The Soviet legislature refused to confirm the first deputy chairman of the nation’s highest court because he was an official in the period before perestroika, President Mikhail S. Gorbachev’s program of restructuring, the official Tass news agency reported. The Supreme Soviet rejected Sergei I. Gusev by a vote of 162-127, with 73 abstentions, Tass said. Gusev, who assumed the No. 2 spot on the Supreme Court in 1979, was the latest in a string of senior officials whose nominations have been turned down. The legislature, meanwhile, confirmed five incumbent Cabinet members and two junior members of the Supreme Court.