QUARRELING OVER FAMILY VALUES : Huck Finn, Dan Quayle and the Value of Acceptance
I AM SITTING ALONE IN MY CAR, IN FRONT OF MY parents’ house--a middle-aged man with a boy’s secret to tell.
What words will I use to tell them? I hate the word gay , find its little affirming sparkle more pathetic than assertive. I am happier with the less polite queer . But to my parents I would say homosexual , avoiding the Mexican slang joto (I had always heard it said in our house with hints of condescension), though joto is less mocking than the sissy-boy maricon .
The buzz on everyone’s lips now: Family values. The other night on TV, the vice president of the United States, his arm around his wife, smiled into the camera and described homosexuality as “mostly a choice.” But how would he know? Homosexuality never felt like a choice to me.
A few minutes ago Rush Limbaugh, the radio guy with a voice that reminds me, for some reason, of a butcher’s arms, was banging his console and booming a near-reasonable polemic about family values. Limbaugh was not very clear about which values exactly he considers to be family values. A divorced man who lives alone in New York?
My parents live on a gray, treeless street in San Francisco not far from the ocean. Probably more than half of the neighborhood is immigrant. India lives next door to Greece, who lives next door to Russia. I wonder what the Chinese lady next door to my parents makes of the politicians’ phrase family values .
What immigrants know, what my parents certainly know, is that when you come to this country, you risk losing your children. The assurance of family--continuity, inevitability--is precisely what America encourages its children to overturn. Become your own man. We who are native to this country know this too, of course, though we are likely to deny it. Only a society so guilty about its betrayal of family would tolerate the pieties of politicians regarding family values.
On the same summer day that Republicans were swarming in Houston (buzzing about family values), a friend of mine who escaped family values awhile back and who now wears earrings resembling intrauterine devices, was complaining to me over coffee about the Chinese. The Chinese will never take over San Francisco, my friend said, because the Chinese do not want to take over San Francisco. The Chinese do not even see San Francisco! All they care about is their damn families. All they care about is double-parking smack in front of the restaurant on Clement Street and pulling granny out of the car--and damn anyone who happens to be in the car behind them or the next or the next.
Politicians would be horrified by such an American opinion, of course. But then, what do politicians, Republicans or Democrats, really know of our family life? Or what are they willing to admit? Even in that area where they could reasonably be expected to have something to say--regarding the relationship of family life to our economic system--the politicians say nothing. Republicans celebrate American economic freedom, but Republicans don’t seem to connect that economic freedom to the social breakdown they find appalling. Democrats, on the other hand, if more tolerant of the drift from familial tradition, are suspicious of the very capitalism that creates social freedom.
How you become free in America: Consider the immigrant. He gets a job. Soon he is earning more money than his father ever made (his father’s authority is thereby subtly undermined). The immigrant begins living a life his father never knew. The immigrant moves from one job to another, changes houses. His economic choices determine his home address--not the other way around. The immigrant is on his way to becoming his own man.
When I was broke a few years ago and trying to finish a book, I lived with my parents. What a thing to do! A major theme of America is leaving home. We trust the child who forsakes family connections to make it on his own. We call that the making of a man.
Let’s talk about this man stuff for a minute. America’s ethos is anti-domestic. We may be intrigued by blood that runs through wealth--the Kennedys or the Rockefellers--but they seem European to us. Which is to say, they are movies. They are Corleones. Our real pledge of allegiance: We say in America that nothing about your family--your class, your race, your pedigree--should be as important as what you yourself achieve. We end up in 1992 introducing ourselves by first names.
What authority can Papa have in a country that formed its identity in an act of Oedipal rebellion against a mad British king? Papa is a joke in America, a stock sitcom figure--Archie Bunker or Homer Simpson. But my Mexican father went to work every morning, and he stood in a white smock, making false teeth, oblivious of the shelves of grinning false teeth mocking his devotion.
The nuns in grammar school--my wonderful Irish nuns--used to push Mark Twain on me. I distrusted Huck Finn, he seemed like a gringo kid I would steer clear of in the schoolyard. (He was too confident.) I realize now, of course, that Huck is the closest we have to a national hero. We trust the story of a boy who has no home and is restless for the river. (Huck’s Pap is drunk.) Americans are more forgiving of Huck’s wildness than of the sweetness of the Chinese boy who walks to school with his mama or grandma. (There is no worse thing in America than to be a mama’s boy, nothing better than to be a real boy--all boy--like Huck, who eludes Aunt Sally, and is eager for the world of men.)
There’s a bent old woman coming up the street. She glances nervously as she passes my car. What would you tell us, old lady, of family values in America?
America is an immigrant country, we say. Motherhood--parenthood--is less our point than adoption. If I had to assign gender to America, I would note the consensus of the rest of the world. When America is burned in effigy, a male is burned. Americans themselves speak of Uncle Sam.
Like the Goddess of Liberty, Uncle Sam has no children of his own. He steals children to make men of them, mocks all reticence, all modesty, all memory. Uncle Sam is a hectoring Yankee, a skinflint uncle, gaunt, uncouth, unloved. He is the American Savonarola--hater of moonshine, destroyer of stills, burner of cocaine. Sam has no patience with mamas’ boys.
You betray Uncle Sam by favoring private over public life, by seeking to exempt yourself, by cheating on your income taxes, by avoiding jury duty, by trying to keep your boy on the farm.
Mothers are traditionally the guardians of the family--against America--though even Mom may side with America against queers and deserters, at least when the Old Man is around. Premature gray hair. Arthritis in her shoulders. Bowlegged with time, red hands. In their fiercely flowered housedresses, mothers are always smarter than fathers in America. But in reality they are betrayed by their children who leave. In a thousand ways. They end up alone.
We kind of like the daughter who was a tomboy. Remember her? It was always easier to be a tomboy in America than a sissy. Americans admired Annie Oakley more than they admired Liberace (who, nevertheless, always remembered his mother). But today we do not admire Annie Oakley when we see Mom becoming Annie Oakley.
The American household now needs two incomes, everyone says. Meaning: Mom is forced to leave home out of economic necessity. But lots of us know lots of moms who are sick and tired of being mom, or only mom. It’s like the nuns getting fed up, teaching kids for all those years and having those kids grow up telling stories of how awful Catholic school was! Not every woman in America wants her life’s work to be forgiveness. Today there are moms who don’t want their husbands’ names. And the most disturbing possibility: What happens when Mom doesn’t want to be Mom at all? Refuses pregnancy?
Mom is only becoming an American like the rest of us. Certainly, people all over the world are going to describe the influence of feminism on women (all over the world) as their “Americanization.” And rightly so.
Nothing of this, of course, will the politician’s wife tell you. The politician’s wife is careful to follow her husband’s sentimental reassurances that nothing has changed about America except perhaps for the sinister influence of deviants. Like myself.
I contain within myself an anomaly at least as interesting as the Republican Party’s version of family values. I am a homosexual Catholic, a communicant in a tradition that rejects even as it upholds me.
I do not count myself among those Christians who proclaim themselves protectors of family values. They regard me as no less an enemy of the family than the “radical feminists.” But the joke about families that all homosexuals know is that we are the ones who stick around and make families possible. Call on us. I can think of 20 or 30 examples. A gay son or daughter is the only one who is “free” (married brothers and sisters are too busy). And, indeed, because we have admitted the inadmissible about ourselves (that we are queer)--we are adepts at imagination--we can even imagine those who refuse to imagine us. We can imagine Mom’s loneliness, for example. If Mom needs to be taken to church or to the doctor or ferried between Christmas dinners, depend on the gay son or lesbian daughter.
I won’t deny that the so-called gay liberation movement, along with feminism, undermined the heterosexual household, if that’s what politicians mean when they say family values. Against churchly reminders that sex was for procreation, the gay bar as much as the birth-control pill taught Americans not to fear sexual pleasure. In the past two decades--and, not coincidentally, parallel to the feminist movement--the gay liberation movement moved a generation of Americans toward the idea of a childless adulthood. If the women’s movement was ultimately more concerned about getting out of the house and into the workplace, the gay movement was in its way more subversive to Puritan America because it stressed the importance of play.
Several months ago, the society editor of the morning paper in San Francisco suggested (on a list of “must haves”) that every society dame must have at least one gay male friend. A ballet companion. A lunch date. The remark was glib and incorrect enough to beg complaints from homosexual readers, but there was a truth about it as well. Homosexual men have provided women with an alternate model of masculinity. And the truth: The Old Man, God bless him, is a bore. Thus are we seen as preserving marriages? Even Republican marriages?
For myself, homosexuality is a deep brotherhood but does not involve domestic life. Which is why, my married sisters will tell you, I can afford the time to be a writer. And why are so many homosexuals such wonderful teachers and priests and favorite aunts, if not because we are freed from the house? On the other hand, I know lots of homosexual couples (male and female) who model their lives on the traditional heterosexual version of domesticity and marriage. Republican politicians mock the notion of a homosexual marriage, but ironically such marriages honor the heterosexual marriage by imitating it.
“The only loving couples I know,” a friend of mine recently remarked, “are all gay couples.”
This woman was not saying that she does not love her children or that she is planning a divorce. But she was saying something about the sadness of American domestic life: the fact that there is so little joy in family intimacy. Which is perhaps why gossip (public intrusion into the private) has become a national industry. All day long, in forlorn houses, the television lights up a freakish parade of husbands and mothers-in-law and children upon the stage of Sally or Oprah or Phil. They tell on each other. The audience ooohhhs. Then a psychiatrist-shaman appears at the end to dispense prescriptions--the importance of family members granting one another more “space.”
The question I desperately need to ask you is whether we Americans have ever truly valued the family. We are famous, or our immigrant ancestors were famous, for the willingness to leave home. And it is ironic that a crusade under the banner of family values has been taken up by those who would otherwise pass themselves off as patriots. For they seem not to understand America, nor do I think they love the freedoms America grants. Do they understand why, in a country that prizes individuality and is suspicious of authority, children are disinclined to submit to their parents? You cannot celebrate American values in the public realm without expecting them to touch our private lives. As Barbara Bush remarked recently, family values are also neighborhood values. It may be harmless enough for Barbara Bush to recall a sweeter America--Midland, Texas, in the 1950s. But the question left begging is why we chose to leave Midland, Texas. Americans like to say that we can’t go home again. The truth is that we don’t want to go home again, don’t want to be known, recognized. Don’t want to respond in the same old ways. (And you know you will if you go back there.)
Little 10-year-old girls know that there are reasons for getting away from the family. They learn to keep their secrets--under lock and key--addressed to Dear Diary. Growing up queer, you learn to keep secrets as well. In no place are those secrets more firmly held than within the family house. You learn to live in closets. I know a Chinese man who arrived in America about 10 years ago. He got a job and made some money. And during that time he came to confront his homosexuality. And then his family arrived. I do not yet know the end of this story.
The genius of America is that it permits children to leave home, it permits us to become different from our parents. But the sadness, the loneliness of America, is clear too.
Listen to the way Americans talk about immigrants. If, on the one hand, there is impatience when today’s immigrants do not seem to give up their family, there is also a fascination with this reluctance. In Los Angeles, Hispanics are considered people of family. Hispanic women are hired to be at the center of the American family--to baby-sit and diaper, to cook and to clean and to ease the dying. Hispanic attachment to family is seen by many Americans, I think, as the reason why Hispanics don’t get ahead. But if Asians privately annoy us for being so family oriented, they are also stereotypically celebrated as the new “whiz kids” in school. Don’t Asians go to college, after all, to honor their parents?
More important still is the technological and economic ascendancy of Asia, particularly Japan, on the American imagination. Americans are starting to wonder whether perhaps the family values of Asia put the United States at a disadvantage. The old platitude had it that ours is a vibrant, robust society for being a society of individuals. Now we look to Asia and see team effort paying off.
In this time of national homesickness, of nostalgia, for how we imagine America used to be, there are obvious dangers. We are going to start blaming each other for the loss. Since we are inclined, as Americans, to think of ourselves individually, we are disinclined to think of ourselves as creating one another or influencing one another.
But it is not the politician or any political debate about family values that has brought me here on a gray morning to my parents’ house. It is some payment I owe to my youth and to my parents’ youth. I imagine us sitting in the living room, amid my mother’s sentimental doilies and the family photographs, trying to take the measure of the people we have turned out to be in America.
A San Francisco poet, when he was in the hospital and dying, called a priest to his bedside. The old poet wanted to make his peace with Mother Church. He wanted baptism. The priest asked why. “Because the Catholic Church has to accept me,” said the poet. “Because I am a sinner.”
Isn’t willy-nilly inclusiveness the point, the only possible point to be derived from the concept of family? Curiously, both President Bush and Vice President Quayle got in trouble with their constituents recently for expressing a real family value. Both men said that they would try to dissuade a daughter or granddaughter from having an abortion. But, finally, they said they would support her decision, continue to love her, never abandon her.
There are families that do not accept. There are children who are forced to leave home because of abortions or homosexuality. There are family secrets that Papa never hears. Which is to say there are families that never learn the point of families.
But there she is at the window. My mother has seen me and she waves me in. Her face asks: Why am I sitting outside? (Have they, after all, known my secret for years and kept it, out of embarrassment, not knowing what to say?) Families accept, often by silence. My father opens the door to welcome me in.