Dear Liz: We have two children in college, both entering their junior years. We have two more in high school. The two currently in college need additional financial assistance, as they've tapped out their federal student loans.
We are middle class, grossing about $125,000 a year, so we don't qualify for much financial aid. We're considering a cash-out refinancing of our home, but we feel as though we can do it only once, since each time we refinance it will cost us some fees, plus interest rates are likely to start edging up soon.
However, if we take out a big chunk of cash that could last us for the next two years for the first two children, and possibly some for the other two, we're concerned that having that much cash sitting in the bank will reduce the amount of financial aid we receive, which would be counterproductive.
Is there a way to earmark the extra cash clearly for education expenses so that it doesn't count negatively on our Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)? Or do we just need to take this year's cash out now, and refinance again each year (which seems crazy)?
As an aside, now that we have a little experience with this college thing, we will guide the two younger ones to community college or living at home while attending a less expensive public college, or something along those lines.
The first two just sort of went — without a lot of financial forethought.
Answer: The chunk of cash from such a refinance would be counted as a parental asset, provided the savings account is in your names and not those of your child.
So a maximum of 5.64% of the total would be included in any financial aid calculations. That's not a big bite, but if you're not getting much financial aid it could offset or erase the small amount you're getting.
The bigger danger is that you're taking on debt for something that won't increase your own wealth or earning power. If you should suffer a severe-enough financial setback, such as a layoff, you could wind up losing your home.
In general, parents shouldn't borrow more for their children's college educations than they can afford to pay back before retirement — or within 10 years, whichever is less.
This rule of thumb assumes that you're already saving adequately for retirement and will continue to do so while paying back the debt. If that's not the case, you shouldn't borrow at all.
If you're going to borrow and can pay the money back quickly, a home equity line of credit may be a better option than a refinance. Interest rates on lines of credit aren't fixed, but the costs are significantly less and you can withdraw money as needed.
Yet another option: parent PLUS loans, which currently offer a fixed rate of 6.84%. Approach these loans cautiously. It's easy to borrow too much, since the program doesn't consider your ability to repay. And like federal student loans, this debt typically can't be erased in Bankruptcy Court.
Understanding Social Security survivor benefits
Dear Liz: I need a clarification because I'm getting conflicting answers from Social Security.
I know if you start Social Security benefits early, you get them at a reduced rate. When your spouse dies, is your survivor benefit reduced as well? My friend's mother never worked, but started collecting spousal benefits at 62. Does she get reduced or full benefit when her husband dies?
Answer: Her survivor's benefit is not reduced because she started spousal benefits early. It may be reduced, however, if her husband started retirement benefits early or if she starts survivor's benefits before her own full retirement age.
Survivor's checks are based on what the husband either was receiving or had earned. If the husband starts retirement benefits before his own full retirement age (currently 66), his checks are reduced, which also reduces what his widow could receive as a survivor.
If he delays retirement past 66, he earns 8% annual "delayed retirement credits" — an increase both would get.
If he dies before full retirement age without starting benefits, the survivor benefit would be based on what he would have received at full retirement age. If he dies after full retirement age without starting benefits, the survivor check is based on the larger amount he had earned (in other words, his benefit at full retirement age, plus any delayed retirement credits).
How much of the husband's benefit his widow would get depends on when she starts claiming her survivor's benefit.
If she starts at the earliest possible age of 60 (or 50 if she's disabled, or any age if there are children under 16), her survivor's benefit will be reduced to reflect the early start.
If she waits until her full retirement age, by contrast, the survivor's benefit would be equal to what her husband was receiving or had earned. Waiting to start survivor benefits until after her full retirement age doesn't increase her check, however.