JOHANNESBURG, South Africa — Nelson Mandela didn't coin the term "Rainbow Nation" or the phrase "Proudly South African." But the optimism, determination and compassion of the country at its best owed everything to him.
In recent years, however, South Africa under the leadership of the African National Congress that Mandela loved is often quite different — shoddy, corrupt and incompetent. In short, depressingly like other African countries betrayed by liberation movements.
While life has gradually improved for many, problems once attributed to apartheid stubbornly remain. Nearly two decades after the ANC took power, poor education and healthcare systems still hold back many blacks. The police, no longer dominated by whites, are still brutal. Government departments still treat people with callous disregard.
Despite the existence of a powerful black elite and the growth of a modest black middle class, 40% of the population gets by on less than $40 a month per family member. Whites still earn six times more than blacks. And some analysts say the absolute electoral dominance of the ANC weakens South Africa's democracy.
Mandela, who died Thursday at his suburban Johannesburg home, is revered for his vision of South Africa as a prosperous nonracial democracy where blacks could take their place at the table without apology. His vision was bigger than racial harmony and peace, said political analyst Justice Malala — Mandela envisioned a country where blacks enjoyed the full benefits of equality and democracy.
"He went for reconciliation. He wanted to reassure particularly white South Africans that they still had a stake in the country," Malala said. "People thought, 'He's an ogre, he's going to do all those things that African dictators have done before.' He worked hard to say, 'No, that's not the way it's going to be.'"
Mandela initially supported the nationalization of major industries but changed his mind in the early 1990s in order to avoid scaring off foreign investors and triggering white flight. Rather than seizing farmland, the ANC embraced an effort to put together willing buyers and sellers that many dismissed as ineffective.
But people don't talk about the Rainbow Nation anymore, and when people use the term "Proudly South African," it's often in irony.
Protests over government failures, which may involve roadblocks, tire burning and riots, are common.
"We've been betrayed by our brothers and sisters," said Sibusiso Zikode, spokesman for a grass-roots organization of shack-dwellers. "There's no difference from the apartheid government. It's a question of human dignity. Treat me as a human being.
"While I'm waiting 20 years for a house, give me water," he said. "Why would I not get water?"
Bongisisa Gwiliza, a laborer who lives in a shantytown outside Rustenburg, said South Africa's new leaders did not keep their promises to narrow the gap between rich and poor.
"There's no sanitation. The place is so dirty," he said. "The shacks have got holes. When it rains, it floods. There's a lot of rain coming in. When there's wind, there's a lot of wind coming in, and it's very cold."
Racial tensions persist. The levels of extreme violence and crime remain high, particularly crime against women. In several cases this year, teenage girls were raped, mutilated and left to die.
During the apartheid years, South Africans living in black townships feared and loathed the police force that the white minority government used as a tool of oppression. When police killed 34 protesting miners outside Johannesburg in 2012, the echo of apartheid-era police brutality shocked the nation.
In early 2013, several police were charged with murder in the death of a Mozambican taxi driver, who was handcuffed to a police car, dragged hundreds of yards along a road and beaten, in an incident caught on cellphone video. The victim died that night of horrific injuries.
Statistics from the independent police watchdog group suggest those incidents are the tip of the iceberg, with 720 deaths in police custody reported in 2011-12. Analysts are uncertain why South Africa's police force remains so violent. Some blame the policies of former chief Bheki Cele, who sought more powers to deal with heavily armed gangs in a country with one of the globe's highest rates of violent crime.