The World

Spanish aviation authorities said that errors by both the pilot of a Colombian airliner and air traffic controllers led to the plan's crash outside Madrid on Nov. 27, 1983, killing 181 people. The Avianca Boeing 747 hit a hillside as it approached Madrid from Paris. Only 11 survived. Spain's Civil Aviation Authority said the jet began its descent off course and too low, and without tower approval for an instrument landing, and the crew failed to respond to the plane's automatic low-altitude alarm.

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