The "first shame" was in March, 1938, when a majority of Austrians felt compelled to demand the Anschluss --with the Third Reich, thereby negating centuries of independence. Chancellor Kurt Schuschnig invited Hitler to occupy Austria to prevent "undesirable" elements from coming to power. This "Anschluss" or literally "coupling" was done with great glee by a spineless chancellor and his government.
The people bellowed "Ein Volk--Ein Reich--Ein Furer" --One Country, One People, One Leader and showered Hitler with rose petals on his triumphant entry, and promptly prided themselves by taking prominent Jews from their homes and making them scrub the sidewalks of Vienna of painted-on Nazi slogans!
Austria--which was the cradle of literature, poetry, music and medical discoveries--joined its neighbor Germany in a period of a bestial nightmare in the following seven years that would have left Genghis Khan green with envy. In the greatest con game ever the Austrian people managed to convince the world that they were an "occupied" country and therefore even avoided any guilt or reparations to their victims!
I feel I know what I write, since I was born in Austria, as were generations of my ancestors, and witnessed the shame of 1938! There was no Austria "Gemuetlichkeit" in the concentration camps--staffed mostly by Austrian SS troops!
Now--the "second shame"--the Austrian people reverted to their true nature. Once again they dream of the sound of drums, hobnailed boots, and the beating up of defenseless minorities--a majority elected Nazi Waldheim! This same and sin must surely stay with them--unto the tenth generation.