Clipboard researched by Henry Rivero / Los Angeles Times. Graphics by Doris Shields / Los Angeles Times

Each year, approximately 22,000 people are arrested for drunk driving in Orange County. Many of those convicted who go on probation are sent to any one of several local alcohol rehabilitation programs. These programs, which normally include some combination of group therapy, group discussion and education, are run by independent centers that contract with the county’s courts (see below for a list of those centers).

Offenders are sent to one of three treatment levels depending on the number of prior convictions. The judge may also recommend a level based on the likelihood of repeat offenses. The line dividing the different levels, however, is generally between first offenses and multiple (two or more convictions) offenses.

Drunk driving laws for first offenders are set by the county, but those for multiple offenders are set by the state. In addition, the county may add regulations to the state laws.


First offenders who want to keep their licenses are normally sent to one of the county’s two Level I programs. The first mandates eight hours of education and six hours of drink refusal skills training. The other program also includes eight hours of education. However, it requires only four hours of drink refusal skills training and adds one hour of field driving training, during which participants observe an intoxicated driver maneuvering a car through an obstacle course.

All multiple offenders must participate in group therapy for 52 weeks (one hour per week) and 12 hours of group discussion (one hour per month). They must also see their case manager for 15 minutes every other week.

Another program, intermediate between the programs for Level I participants and multiple offenders, is Level II. It was established in February, 1986, after the courts determined there were some convicted first offenders who were at high risk for repeat offenses. This program provides more therapy than at Level I, but is not as lengthy as a multiple offender program. Participants take part in the multiple offender’s program for nine months, rather than for a full year. They must also participate in 38 hours of group therapy, nine hours of group discussion and meet with their case managers for 15 minutes every other week.

Regardless of level, all offenders must completely abstain from alcohol. Penalties may range from a trip back to court to Antabuse therapy. Antabuse is a drug that induces vomiting in those who consume alcohol after taking it.

ALCOHOL REHABILITATION PROGRAMS Below is a listing of the local alcohol programs that take court referrals of convicted drunk drivers. The offender must pay all fees*, including making arrangements for fee waivers or reductions where applicable; no local or state funds are used. Level II and multiple offender’s programs School Ten Fees are on a sliding scale. 2384 E. Orangethorpe Ave. Anaheim 92806 (714) 871-9460 120 S. Brookhurst St. Anaheim 92804 (714) 772-3620 9555 Garfield Ave. Fountain Valley 92708 (714) 964-1412 1772 S. Main St. Santa Ana 92707 (714) 547-7571 6162 Garden Grove Blvd. Westminster 92683 (714) 891-3608 South Coast Counseling Fees are $669.50 for first offender’s program and $790.20 for the second offender’s. The price difference corresponds to the difference in the length of the programs. Also, the center provides financial assistance to those who have difficulty paying for treatment. 28052 Camino Capistrano, Suite 210 Laguna Niguel 92677 (714) 582-2833 2850 Airway Loop, Suite B-3 Costa Mesa 92646 (714) 641-0532 Programs for first offenders National Council on Alcoholism Fees are $139 for the Level I program and $224 for the Level II program. Also, there is a sliding scale for clients with an annual income of less than $10,000, which is verified through tax records. 1100 E. Orangethorpe Ave., Suite 150 Anaheim 92801 (714) 992-1870 2110 E. 1st St., Suite 120 Santa Ana 92705 (714) 835-3830 National Traffic Safety Institute The center declined to reveal its fees, except to say there is a sliding scale for those whose annual income falls below an unspecified amount. 2120 Howell Ave., Suite 410 Anaheim 92806 (714) 634-0981 Academy of Defensive Driving Fees are on a sliding scale. 31726 Rancho Viejo Road, Suite 118 San Juan Capistrano 92675 (714) 240-0595 School Ten (See above for fee information) 6930 Westminster Blvd. Westminster 92683 (714) 898-8388 * All fees subject to change. Below is a listing of the number of people referred to county programs since 1983. Some of the year-to-year differences are due to changes in the laws describing first offenders and multiple offenders. For instance, beginning on Jan. 1, the length of time that drunk driving records remain active was extended from five to seven years. Thus, someone convicted before that date who had a prior drunk driving conviction six years before would be considered a first offender; anyone convicted after that date with a six-year-old conviction would be deemed a multiple offender.

* Fiscal Fiscal Fiscal Fiscal Year Year Year Year 1987-88 1986-87 1985-86 1984-85 LEVEL I National Council on Alcohol 4,155 3,708 4,268 3,698 National Traffic Safety Institute 1,573 1,964 1,723 ** 2,598 Academy of Defensive Driving 1,514 1,691 2,135 2,637 School Ten 1,774 2,223 2,931 2,962 MULTIPLE OFFENDERS School Ten 2,359 2,245 2,017 1,860 South Coast Counseling 714 661 627 559 LEVEL II School Ten 1,027 396 2 --- South Coast Counseling 216 107 30 --- TEAMS East regional team* in Santa Ana --- 183 46 --- West regional team* in Westminster --- 203 33 --- North regional team* in Fullerton --- 59 9 --- South regional team* in Costa Mesa --- 108 77 --- JUVENILES *** Turning Point 149 158 146 --- Community Counseling Center 14 19 20 ---


Fiscal Year 1983-84 LEVEL I National Council on Alcohol 3,408 National Traffic Safety Institute --- Academy of Defensive Driving 3,671 School Ten 3,152 MULTIPLE OFFENDERS School Ten 1,780 South Coast Counseling 614 LEVEL II School Ten --- South Coast Counseling --- TEAMS East regional team* in Santa Ana --- West regional team* in Westminster --- North regional team* in Fullerton --- South regional team* in Costa Mesa --- JUVENILES *** Turning Point --- Community Counseling Center ---

* The fiscal year runs July 1-June 30. *The east, west, north and south regional teams are county voluntary alcohol treatment centers. They temporarily took in court referrals for convicted drunk drivers when the Level II program, for first offenders deemed at risk for repeat offenses, was begun. ** Started July 1. *** The juvenile programs began in June, 1985. JUVENILE TREATMENT PROGRAMS Juveniles who are convicted of drunk driving must participate in a separate program for minors, for a total of 10 hours. The program consists of four hours of education and six of drink refusal skills. In each case the judge can make additional recommendations depending on the individual. There are no distinct levels for juveniles as there are for adults. Turning Point Fees are on a sliding scale. Maximum fee is generally $118 for those referred through the courts. Maximum fee is $90 for probation department and non-court referrals. 12912 Brookhurst St., Suite 150 Garden Grove 92640 (714) 636-3823 Community Counseling Center $87.50 for 12-week drunk driving program for those under 18. Includes individual counseling session. 32141 Alipaz St. Suite B San Juan Capistrano 92675 (714) 493-7333 DRUNK DRIVING PENALTIES IN OTHER COUNTRIES Penalties are much stiffer in many other countries, with punishments ranging from public humiliation to death sentences. Also, the limit at which one is considered to be intoxicated can be much lower. For instance, the legal drunk driving limit in Europe is .05%, compared to .10% in California. Australia: Offenders get to see their names printed in the local newspapers. Malaya: Drivers are jailed--which is particularly unfortunate for their spouses, because they’re jailed, too. Turkey: Offenders are driven 20 miles out of town and literally forced to take a hike back. Norway: Offenders get a three-week vacation--in a work camp; also, driver’s license is revoked by a judge, and they can reapply only after one year. Finland: One-year jail term at hard labor. Sweden: First offenders who show an alcohol count of .05% have their licenses taken away and receive a fine; those showing more than .15% are sent to a work camp for three to four weeks. Costa Rica: Car license plates are confiscated. Soviet Union: License is revoked--for life . England: Offenders are fined $250 and jailed for one year. France: Offenders are fined $1,000, spend one year in jail and lose their licenses for three years. Poland: Offenders are fined, jailed and given political lectures. Bulgaria: Execution upon second conviction. El Salvador: No official toleration of drunk driving--first offenders are executed. Yugoslavia: Licenses are revoked for the life of the judge --it is against the law to even attempt to reapply for one; anyone caught driving receives a jail term. Japan: Licenses are revoked for life. Sources: Alcohol Safety Action Program in Virginia; RID-U.S.A. Inc.

ALCOHOL SCREENING PROGRAM The Orange County Probation Department coordinates an alcohol screening program for first offense cases that go through Central and South Orange County municipal courts *. All cases resulting in convictions are sent to the program, which determines the level alcohol program theoffender should attend. Below are the breakdowns for the cases it screened from January, 1986, through August, 1988.**

Through August, 1986 1987 1988 Central South Central South Central South TOTAL SCREENED Male 452 773 367 1,118 938 730 Female 51 172 47 289 110 185 AGE Under 21 42 112 38 133 103 88 21-25 133 226 114 353 334 213 26-29 105 172 90 264 202 148 30-34 78 122 63 210 163 144 35-39 66 120 38 61 103 128 40-49 62 131 35 167 103 122 50+ 17 51 36 119 40 42 RACE White 159 789 191 1,145 397 747 Latino 315 126 194 214 592 140 Black 9 14 13 16 16 11 Asian 6 10 13 13 29 11 Other 5 6 3 19 14 6 EMPLOYMENT Full-time 307 705 23 1,085 807 580 Part-time 65 119 45 173 119 120 Unemployed 53 96 31 115 107 77 Retired 3 11 8 16 6 16 PROGRAM LEVEL Level I 284 726 305 1,148 711 726 Level II 219 219 109 259 337 189

*The areas in Central court’s jurisdiction are Santa Ana, Tustin, Orange, Villa Park and unincorporated areas in the vicinity. The areas in South court’s jurisdiction are San Clemente, Capistrano Beach, San Juan Capistrano, Mission Viejo, Laguna Niguel, Dana Point, Laguna Beach, El Toro, Laguna Hills and Rancho Santa Margarita. Individual judges make treatment recommendations for cases tried in West, North and Harbor municipal courts. No statistics are available from them. The areas in those jurisdictions are Cypress, Fountain Valley, Garden Grove, Huntington Beach, Los Alamitos, Seal Beach, Stanton and Westminster in West court; Fullerton, Anaheim, Brea, La Habra, La Palma, Placentia, Yorba Linda and Buena Park in North court, and Newport Beach, Irvine, Costa Mesa, Balboa, Corona del Mar, Santa Ana Heights, Lido Isle, John Wayne Airport and surrounding unincorporated areas in Harbor court. ** The program began in late 1985, but started keeping statistics in January, 1986. Sources: The Orange County Probation Department, the Orange County Health Care Agency and individual rehabilitation centers. Sources: Alcohol Safety Action Program in Virginia; RID-U.S.A. Inc.