'New Way of Thinking'--Messages From the Presidents

From a Times Staff Writer

Following are excerpts from messages delivered by Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and President Bush in the capital Thursday.

Gorbachev, speaking to Americans at the Soviet Embassy:

. . . We have to adopt a new way of thinking to each other. And it looks as if we'll have to proceed from competition to cooperation.

Let's not hurry, because such changes do not happen overnight. Because only in Lithuania, they can overnight decide a question about seceding from the Soviet Union, and after that they are at a loss what to do, and we are at a loss what to do. . . . That is one way of proceeding. . . . But there is another one which is more right, it is more humane. That is to be very cautious. . . . So let us not hasten to undertake certain measures. And if we manage to pass from confrontation to competition to cooperation, that would indeed be a major achievement. . . .

We recall the '30s when there was cooperation in building plants and factories in our countries. Memories are still alive in the minds of our people, and we feel very good feelings toward the American people. . . . And this year, during the day of my birthday, I received an enormous number of congratulations and 98% from the United States of America. . . .

So, we have the atmosphere in which we could promote such trends in the relations between our two countries. This is not an easy task. . . . But it seems to me that we haven't had a better time to undertake changes than today. And we are now at a watershed, at a very crucial moment and we are prepared. . . . We had different camps, different civilizations, but, well, we found out that we live in one world, in one civilization. . . .

I said to the President and I am repeating it now, that some people say that we could apply some pressure on the Soviet Union because it's enfeebled now. But how can you say that . . . when perestroika is under way, it's going on, and all the instability, all the changes are but an indication of its fundamental nature. We are changing our political system, we are working to develop a new economic system. . . . That will not be like in the United States, in Germany, because that will be our unique way, because we would flounder if we decide to simply adopt the ways that are current in some other country. . . . At any rate, we'll have to travel down this road because we have no other choice, and the only thing to decide is. . . . how rapid our progress should be, and what would be its modalities.

But now we are experiencing a crucial period of time. Like never before, we want to be understood right now. . . .

When you introduce a market economy, then you give an incentive to those who work. And those who would like to sponge . . . who would like to get unearned pay, they would be in a difficult spot. . . . And today, during my discussion on this particular topic . . . it was said (not by President Bush) that it's difficult to be half-pregnant with introducing a market economy. I said, 'I agree, but at any rate one has to wait nine months before a child is born'. . . .

We'll be traveling down this road (but) the major difficulty is that we have become accustomed to certain ways of thinking about market. Americans know pretty well about what a market is . . . but we are innocent, so to say, as far as a market is concerned. We have to start from scratch. . . .

Bush at arrival ceremony:

. . .We have seen a world of change this past year, and now on the horizon, we see what just one short year ago seemed a distant dream. A continent truly divided East and West has begun to heal with the dawn of self-determination and democracy.

In Germany, where the Wall once stood, a nation moves toward unity, and peace, and freedom, and in the nations of the most heavily militarized continent on earth, at last we see the long era of confrontation giving way to the prospect of enduring cooperation in a Europe whole and free.

Mr. President, you deserve great credit for your part in these transforming events. I salute you, as well, for process of change you've brought to your own country. . . . And we in the United States applaud the new course the Soviet Union has chosen. We see the spirited debate in the Congress of People's Deputies, in the Soviet press, among the Soviet people. We know about the difficult economic reforms that are necessary to breathe new vigor into the Soviet economy, and as I've said many times before, we want to see perestroika succeed.

Since our meeting in Malta, we have reached agreements in important areas, each one proof that when mutual respect prevails, progress is possible. But the agreements we've reached cannot cause us to lose sight of some of the differences that remain. Lithuania is one such issue.

We believe that good faith dialogue between the Soviet leaders and representatives of the Baltic peoples is the proper approach and we hope to see that process go forward. . . .

This summit will be a working summit. . . . In a larger sense, though, the success of this summit depends not on the agreements we will sign, but on our efforts to lay the groundwork for overcoming decades of division and discord, to build a world of peace in freedom. . . .

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