HANUKKAH <i> in a </i> NEW LIGHT
All over the world, Jews celebrate Hanukkah with lighted candles and deep-fried foods. In Morocco, the fundamentals are no different, though, of course, the details are.
While it isn’t considered one of the major Jewish holidays, Hanukkah, which starts this year at sundown Sunday, is one of the most joyous celebrations on the Jewish calendar. Also called Feast of the Lights, the eight-day festival (corresponding to the Jewish calendar’s 25th of Kislev to the 2nd of Tevet) celebrates Judas Maccabaeus’ victory over King Antiochus IV of Syria more than 2,100 years ago.
The king had tried to force the Jews to adopt his form of pagan worship and set up a statue of Zeus in the temple at Jerusalem. Fierce battles ensued. Three years later, in 165 BC, the Jews finally reconquered the temple and set about restoring it.
During its subsequent rededication, the one-day supply of olive oil for the temple’s eternal flame ( ner tamid ) miraculously lasted until the Jews were able to secure a new source of oil eight days later. The use of oil during Hanukkah symbolizes the Jews’ determination to perpetuate their religious traditions.
In Fez, where the Jewish presence dates back almost a thousand years, Moroccan Sephardim, like Jews around the world, commemorate the event by lighting the hanukkiyah (menorah) on eight consecutive evenings. Originally, the hanukkiyah was an oil lamp with eight small receptacles, each holding a wick made of hemp. Today, the nine-branch candelabrum lit with the shamash , or service candle, is the most enduring symbol of Hannuakh.
Hanukkah celebrations in Morocco center mainly around children. Each night, as soon as the first stars are visible in the night sky, family and friends gather around the hanukkiyah for the lighting of the candles. Children are often entrusted with reciting the special Hanukkah prayers: the first blessing gives thanks to God for his command to kindle the Hanukkah lights. The second, recited as the candles are lighted, praises God for the miracle the candles symbolize. In some families, the custom for Hanukkah also entails offering small gifts or coins to the youngest members of the family.
In keeping with the spirit of the celebration, a number of fried foods grace Sephardic tables. The most ubiquitous are the Hanukkah doughnuts -- in French, beignets de hanoukah --traditionally eaten on the third night.
“For us, as children, Hanukkah meant we would be treated to our Tante Judith’s sugar-dusted beignets ,” says Danielle Mamane, a resident of Fez. “After we recited the Hanukkah prayers, my cousins and I would run into the dining room to attack the pyramid of doughnuts. We spent the remainder of the evening giggling at the sight of our white powdered sugar mustaches!”
Formerly, families who lived in the mellah (Jewish quarter) of Fez went from house to house to savor beignets with a steaming glass of mint tea, the Moroccan national drink. Many hosts seized the happy occasion to open a bottle of homemade mahiya , a fiery Kosher liqueur distilled from dried figs, dates or raisins.
Mamane says: “In Fez, the weather in December can be quite cold. My aunt’s house had high ceilings, and was difficult to heat. We all used to gather in the living room to stay warm, and the adults kept the chill at bay by sipping glasses of mahiya . My young cousins and I loved to listen to their stories late into the night. Often, we would simply give in to exhaustion, and we had to be carried home, fast asleep.”
Couscous, a staple of the Moroccan diet, also holds a prominent place on local menus. In Fez, Morocco’s culinary and cultural capital, Sephardic cooks prepare a couscous moistened with a rich fragrant broth delicately scented with orange blossom water on the first night of Hanukkah. They elaborately decorate the mound of steamed semolina with a dusting of powdered sugar and cinnamon, sprinkle its peak with fried almonds, and surround the base with a glistening ring of meltingly tender caramelized onions.
That may be about as far from brisket as you can imagine, but the thought is the same.
Morse’s latest book is the author of nine cookbooks, including the just-released “The Scent of Orange Blossoms: Sephardic Cuisine From Morocco” (Ten Speed Press, $24.95).
Couscous With Onion and Raisin Confit
Active Work Time: 40 minutes * Total Preparation Time: 5 1/2 hours plus 2 hours chilling
Orange blossom water is sold at Middle Eastern markets.
2 1/2 pounds onions
10 cups water
2 pounds beef shank meat
2 beef soup bones
1 stick cinnamon
4 teaspoons salt, divided
5 tablespoons oil, divided
1 cup whole blanched almonds, fried or toasted
1/4 cup granulated sugar
2 teaspoons ground cinnamon, plus more for garnish
3/4 cup raisins, plumped in warm water 15 minutes, then dried
2 cups couscous
1 tablespoon orange blossom water, or more, to taste
Powdered sugar, for garnish
Quarter 2 of the onions. Combine the water, beef, beef bones, the quartered onions, the peppercorns and cinnamon stick in a stock pot or large soup pot. Bring to a rolling boil over medium-high heat. With a slotted spoon, skim off the foam. Reduce the heat to medium. Cover and cook until the beef is tender and the broth is fully flavored, 2 1/2 to 3 hours. Season with 2 teaspoons of the salt. Strain. Reserve the meat and refrigerate for another use. Refrigerate the broth 2 hours or overnight.
Remove and discard the fat. Bring the broth to a boil, and reduce by one-fourth. This should take about 30 minutes. Set aside.
Heat 2 tablespoons of the oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Fry the almonds, shaking the pan occasionally, until light gold, 2 to 3 minutes. Transfer to a bowl and set aside.
Slice the remaining onions and add them to the same skillet with 1 tablespoon of the oil and 2 tablespoons of the broth. Cover and cook until the onions turn soft, 10 to 15 minutes. Add the sugar, 2 teaspoons of cinnamon and 1 teaspoon of salt. Partially cover and continue to cook, stirring occasionally, until the onions acquire a deep caramel color, 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 hours. Add the raisins and heat. Set aside.
Meanwhile, prepare the couscous. Bring 2 1/4 cups of the broth, the remaining 2 tablespoons of the oil and the remaining teaspoon of salt to a boil in a saucepan. Remove from the heat. Add the couscous in a stream. Stir once. Cover, and set aside until the couscous is tender, 5 to 7 minutes.
Reheat 2 cups of the reserved beef broth. Combine 1/2 cup of the broth with the orange blossom water and mix with the couscous. Mound the couscous on a warm serving platter. Spoon the onion mixture around the base. Garnish with spokes of fried almonds. Sprinkle with powdered sugar and a pinch or two of cinnamon. Serve with the remaining broth on the side.
8 servings. Each serving: 537 calories; 1,231 mg sodium; 52 mg cholesterol; 33 grams fat; 7 grams saturated fat; 41 grams carbohydrates; 21 grams protein; 5.59 grams fiber.
Active Work Time: 45 minutes * Total Preparation Time: 1 hour
These Hannukah doughnuts puff up like little golden balls. Serve these hot for best flavor.
3 1/2 cups water, divided
1/2 cup oil, plus more for frying
2 teaspoons salt
2 cups flour
About 1 cup powdered sugar, for coating
Combine 2 cups of the water along with 1/2 cup of oil and salt in a saucepan. Bring to a boil. Add the flour in a stream. Using a wooden spoon, stir the mixture rapidly until it separates from the sides of the pan. Remove from the heat, and let rest 3 or 4 minutes. Stir in the eggs, one at a time, until they are thoroughly incorporated in the dough. Set aside.
In a deep skillet or large saucepan, pour oil to a depth of 3 inches. Heat the oil to 350 degrees or until a piece of dough dropped in the oil sizzles instantly. Drop the dough by tablespoons into the hot oil. Fry the dough in batches until the beignets turn golden brown and float to the surface, 7 to 8 minutes. Using a slotted spoon, transfer the beignets to a platter lined with paper towels to drain. Roll the beignets in powdered sugar while they are still hot, and serve.
30 beignets. Each beignet: 87 calories; 159 mg sodium; 4 mg cholesterol; 5 grams fat; 0 saturated fat; 10 grams carbohydrates; 1 gram protein; 0.23 gram fiber.