Enrique’s Journey | Chapter Five: Notes About Sources
Bullhorns: written from interviews with Enrique and Rio Grande camp dweller Hernan Bonilla. Words agent shouted through the bullhorn: from Bonilla, confirmed by Enrique.
Lost phone numbers: from Deacon Esteban Ramirez Rodriguez of Parroquia de Guadalupe in Reynosa, Mexico, and several immigrant children stranded in Nuevo Laredo, including Ermis Galeano and Kelvin Maradiaga. Migrant twins Jose Enrique Oliva Rosa and Jose Luis Oliva Rosa told of being kidnapped.
Enrique’s plans for getting his mother’s number and saving money to call her: expressed by Enrique to Nazario at the time.
Reluctance to help Central Americans: from Raymundo Ramos Vasquez, director of Comite de Derechos Humanos, Grupo 5 de Febrero, a human rights group in Nuevo Laredo, and Marco Antonio Valdez, a resident. Statement that Jesus was an immigrant: from Oscar Alvarado, caretaker for Parroquia de San Jose’s migrant shelter, confirmed by Enrique and other immigrants.
The encampment: from Enrique and camp residents Hernan Bonilla, Miguel Olivas, Luis Moreno Guzman and Jorge Enrique Morales, as well as from Nazario’s observations at the camp.
Washing cars: from Nazario’s observations. Exchange between Enrique and the man who declined a car wash: observed by Nazario. The next day, Enrique told Nazario how much he had earned.
Meal cards: from Father Filiberto Luviano Mendoza at Parroquia del Santo Nino and volunteer Leti Limon at Parroquia de San Jose. Meal card black market: from immigrant Miguel Olivas.
Dinner at Parroquia de San Jose: from Nazario’s observations at the church. The scriptural translation is from the New American Bible. Words of volunteer Leti Limon and the immigrants’ response: from Nazario’s observations. Father Leonardo Lopez Guajardo at Parroquia de San Jose calculated the percentage of the church’s meals that go to children.
El Tirindaro, his heroin habit and protecting Enrique: from Nazario’s observations and interviews with Enrique and camp residents Miguel Olivas, Hernan Bonilla and Omar Martinez Torres.
Life at the camp and efforts to help one another: from Enrique; Miguel Olivas; Hernan Bonilla, who shared food and taught Enrique to fish; El Tirindaro, who provided clothing and meal cards; and Jorge Enrique Morales, who gave Enrique bits of tacos.
Smuggling around checkpoints: from Enrique; camp dweller Omar Martinez Torres; and U.S. Border Patrol agents, who said the practice is common.
What Enrique and the camp dwellers talked about: from Enrique, Miguel Olivas, Hernan Bonilla and Omar Martinez Torres, as well as Nazario’s observations at the camp. Enrique’s words to a friend that he wanted to be with his mother and the response: from Enrique and fellow camp dweller Omar Martinez Torres. Enrique made the same statement to Nazario while in Nuevo Laredo.
Run-in with street gangster: from Enrique; Nazario also interviewed immigrants who said they were beaten or threatened with guns or knives by river bandits and street gangsters along the Rio Grande.
Jail: from Enrique, corroborated by Raymundo Ramos Vasquez at rights group Comite de Derechos Humanos, Grupo 5 de Febrero.
Abandoned house: from Enrique and photographer Don Bartletti’s observations.
Phone card purchase and remark about needing one more: from Enrique.
Mother’s Day: from Central American mothers, including Agueda Navarro, Belinda Caceres, Orbelina Sanchez and Lourdes Izaguirre, and Nazario’s observations as they consoled one another. A mother’s prayer to live: from Nazario’s observations as she watched Lourdes Izaguirre pray.
Enrique’s words about how long a mother should be away, his loneliness and his longing to tell his mother he loved her: Nazario’s observations as he spoke with fellow car washers.
Lourdes’ thoughts and actions after her son left home: from Lourdes, confirmed by her cousin Maria Edelmira Sanchez Mejia, with whom Lourdes spoke at the time. Enrique’s words to Lourdes during their last phone conversation before he left Honduras: from Lourdes, confirmed by Enrique.
Enrique’s encounter with police at the camp: from Enrique and Nazario’s observations of similar incidents involving Enrique.
Glue sniffing: from Hernan Bonilla and from Nazario’s observations.
Enrique’s words to Hernan about eating: from Enrique.
Enrique’s purchase of a second phone card: Nazario watched him earn some of the money and heard about the purchase from Enrique the next day.
Tattooing: from interviews with Enrique and Nazario’s observations when he awoke in camp. His words as he described the tattoo as a memory of his journey: from Enrique at the time.
Enrique’s sale of his second phone card and purchase of crackers: from Enrique. Theft of bucket: from Enrique. Nazario observed Enrique returning to the car wash with a borrowed bucket, inspecting his tattoo and lowering his shirt. She heard his refusal to give up.
Dangers at river and checkpoints: from immigrants Miguel Olivas, Hernan Bonilla and Fredy Ramirez; U.S. Border Patrol supervisor Alexander D. Hernandez and officers Charles Grout and Manuel Sauceda in Cotulla, Texas; and Nazario’s observations.
Desert dangers: from interviews with immigrants Miguel Olivas, Gonzalo Rodriguez Toledo, Luis Moreno Guzman, Elsa Galarza, Leonicio Alejandro Hernandez, Mario Alberto Hernandez and Manuel Gallegos; U.S. Border Patrol agents Charles Grout and Manuel Sauceda and dog handler Ramon Lopez; and Nazario’s observations while accompanying agents for three days on the Texas border. The General Accounting Office says at least 367 immigrants died crossing the southwestern border into the United States in 2000.
Enrique’s words about dying: spoken by Enrique to Nazario.
Enrique’s shoes and buying a 50-peso phone card: from Enrique at the time.
Father Leonardo Lopez Guajardo’s assistance: from Sister Elizabeth Rangel, church secretary Alma Jimenez and Nazario’s observations.
Enrique’s call to his former employer and return call from uncle Carlos: from Enrique, uncle Carlos Orlando Turcios Ramos and aunt Rosa Amalia. Words during his telephone conversation with uncle Carlos: from Enrique, confirmed by uncle Carlos. The paper Enrique wrote the number on: observed by Nazario.
Enrique’s call to his mother: from Enrique and Lourdes. The day after the call, Enrique quoted words from the exchange to Nazario. Lourdes confirmed the words to Nazario two weeks later.
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