World & Nation

Even before the train killings, Portland was embroiled in conflicts over hate and racism

Protest posters on display at the Upstanders Fest in Portland, Oregon, May 27, 2017, presented by Do
Protest posters are displayed at the Upstanders Fest in Portland, Ore., on Saturday.
(Kristyna Wentz-Graff / For The Times)

It was supposed to be a simple job ad. Oregon’s biggest city was seeking a new police chief, and the mayor had posted a lengthy description online saying what he wanted in the hire.

But two words in it stood out. The mayor — a recently elected white Democrat — said the city had a history of “systemic racism.” He called on the new police leader to “improve relationships” with minorities.

The police union president — a more conservative, black veteran of the force — snapped back. Cops were “angry and confused, as the clear implication from the posting is that the Police Bureau and its members have supported a racist culture in the city,” he said. Police felt demoralized, he added.

Portland, America’s whitest big city, was debating race long before a white supremacist killed two men and injured a third in stabbings on a city train last week. Long simmering tensions over skin color and policing have reached the point of an unusual feud between police leadership and the mayor over where and when it’s OK to talk about racism.


The soul-searching over race in a place that touts itself as a liberal haven has only increased as residents brace for dueling alt-right and anti-fascist rallies this weekend that city officials say they expect potentially armed white supremacists to attend. The city pleaded with organizers to cancel the events, but those calls were rejected.

Portland, Ore., Mayor Ted Wheeler speaks at a news conference on Saturday after a man fatally stabbe
Portland, Ore., Mayor Ted Wheeler speaks at a news conference on Saturday after a man fatally stabbed two men on a light-rail train.
(Gillian Flaccus / Associated Press)

“Portland is a progressive city. It’s a great city. … But we can’t assume that the legacy of the past isn’t impacting the present,” said Mayor Ted Wheeler, whose public spat with the police leader has built up for weeks. He said the police union president, Daryl Turner, simply wants to “protect the status quo” and “not lead us into the future.”

Turner said the mayor, who was formerly in state and county offices, is playing politics to curry favor among residents with flashy statements. “It is hard for me to understand that during his political career, this is the first time ... that he has taken an interest in equity and diversity,” Turner said sarcastically. He acknowledged that police have “work to do” when it comes to racial disparities, but said mentioning that in a job posting would turn applicants away.


Caught between the two men are residents and activists who have become increasingly agitated over race relations and policing in Portland, a city of 632,000 that is 76% white, 9% Latino, 7% Asian and 6% black. (Non-Latino whites make up just 62% of the nation as a whole, and are a minority in many big cities.)

Protesters have repeatedly taken to the streets this year, including after two deadly police shootings of black residents. Activists have shut down city council meetings, shouting at the mayor and commissioners, whom they blame for not responding to the shootings, and what they call unnecessary police clashes with demonstrators. The mayor has called protesters “hostile” and “abusive.” One city commissioner told his staff to not attend city council meetings, saying they were “no longer safe.”

Tensions have increased since March, when a grand jury declined to charge an officer for the shooting and killing of a black, 17-year-old robbery suspect who police said had a replica gun.

Here are two top figures fighting over something that is so obvious — racism. It’s a symbol of how entrenched the problems have become here.
Gregory McKelvey, founder of Portland’s Resistance

Portlanders angry over policing tactics have rallied outside the mayor’s house over the months, banging drums late into the night. At one point, they confronted him and his wife on video. At least once, the mayor headed to a hotel after work to avoid them. At another point, Wheeler’s tires were slashed.

Last month, the American Civil Liberties Union complained to police, saying officers were too heavy-handed and instigated violence from protesters at a May Day rally that resulted in arrests of demonstrators who threw rocks and road flares at police. Police hit back, saying they were the ones being targeted.

“We are no stranger to protest or strong opinions here in Portland, but usually it comes in waves,” said Gregory McKelvey, an activist who founded Portland’s Resistance, a grassroots group that frequently criticizes the mayor and police. “But now we have constant protests, a lot of them against police practices, and here are two top figures fighting over something that is so obvious — racism. It’s a symbol of how entrenched the problems have become here.”

The squabble over the police chief post and talking about race in Portland isn’t the first high-stakes drama in the department, which Wheeler inherited after his inauguration in January and has promised to reform.


The department’s image is still recovering after a Department of Justice investigation five years ago found that it routinely used “unnecessary or unreasonable force” with the mentally ill, many of them minorities. An independent law firm that evaluated police as part of a federal settlement said recently that use of force and police shootings have significantly decreased over the years.

But the same firm, as well as civil rights groups, said police still have more work to do. Activists point to data over the years showing that police stop blacks at much higher rates than whites, for example.

Last June, a previous police chief was forced out of the job and indicted after allegedly misleading investigators about his accidental shooting of a friend while reaching for beer on a hunting trip. His replacement, Chief Mike Marshman, was then put on leave after allegations emerged that he had a subordinate sign him in for a training session he missed. The chief was later cleared of wrongdoing and returned to the job.

Mike Marshman was named Portland’s police chief last year. He said he never expected his position to
Mike Marshman was named Portland’s police chief last year. He said he never expected his position to be temporary and has applied to remain in the post.
(Beth Nakamura / Associated Press)

Marshman, who rose through the ranks and enjoys broad support among officers, said he never expected his position to be temporary and has put his name in for the job. Speaking to the conflict between two top policing officials, he took a middle road.

“I’m in agreement with the mayor that the person coming in should have a commitment to educating other officers about the history of Portland. But when I read the job announcement, I simply don’t know if folks who aren’t from Portland will be put off or not.

“Some folks may look at it and say, ‘OK, Portland gets it.’ But others might say, ‘This is interesting, and what is happening in Portland?’”

The history of racism in Portland is one that has become central to Wheeler’s time in office since the new year.


“When Oregon was established as a state in 1859, by law black people were not allowed to live here,” Wheeler said in his State of the City address in late March, when he said that Portland had a “dark and clouded history around race” that “must be brought to light.”

“Oregon was the only state with such a prohibition. By the 1920s, there were as many as 200,000 Klansman in the state. What was true in Oregon was certainly true in Portland as well,” he continued in the speech.

He spoke eloquently of Vanport, a segregated community in north Portland of around 20,000 where blacks lured to the state during World War II by plentiful shipyard jobs were funneled into a shoddily built public housing community. The city, once the second-largest in the state, was wiped out by a flooded Columbia River in May 1948, tearing apart black families and depleting a growing black population. There’s now a golf course where it once stood.

Civil rights groups and activists give Wheeler high grades for talking about the city’s racial history and dynamics in speeches such as that one and in other statements. But some have asked if he’s more about words than action.


“It cannot be denied that we have a history of racism here,” said the Rev. T. Allen Bethel, the board president of the Albina Ministerial Alliance Coalition for Justice and Police Reform, a group of religious leaders that speaks out frequently on policing. He said he was baffled by Turner’s statements. “But at the end of the day, we’re looking to see who is coming in and what will actually happen,” he added.

Jo Ann Hardesty, a former state legislator and current president of the Portland National Assn. for the Advancement of Colored People — the oldest continuously chartered chapter west of the Mississippi — said Wheeler deserves some credit.

“He said we have to talk about race, and I’m really impressed that he made our history part of the job description,” she said. But after 27 years of living in Portland, she’s also low on hope. “Portland police remain the same. They police differently based on your race. That hasn’t changed.”


Special correspondent Rick Anderson in Seattle contributed to this report.


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