Time to face north and salute: Canada is turning 150 and we have 150 pictures
In Canada, you know that hockey is never going to be far away. Even down on the farm. In this image from 2012, the background shows Stanley Cup keepers Mike Bolt, right, and Howard Borrow in a barn doorway with hockey’s greatest prize. In the foreground, Los Angeles Kings coach Darryl Sutter rides by on his horse, Red. Sutter’s farm is near the small town of Viking, Alberta.(Robert Gauthier / Los Angeles Times)
Whenever you see a cool picture of a polar bear, odds are good that it was shot in Churchill, Manitoba, as this one was. Visitors from around the world come in October and November to stay in wilderness lodges, ride tundra buggies and photograph the bears as they go about daily life in the Churchill Wildlife Management Area on Hudson Bay.(Danita Delimont / Getty Images)
The skyline of Toronto, Canada’s largest city, has one standout star: the CN Tower. It was completed in 1976 for the Canadian National Railway and stands 1,814 feet tall. Its four observation levels include a revolving restaurant, 360 (open for lunch and dinner), that’s 1,151 feet above ground.(Hector Retamal / AFP/Getty Images)
Plenty of people visit Niagara Falls, the natural wonder at the boundary of the Canadian province of Ontario and America’s New York. But not many visitors do it this way. In 2012, Nik Wallenda walked on a wire across a part of the falls. The feat, televised live on ABC, was the first walk of its kind in more than 100 years.
(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
The Fogo Island Inn, a 29-room contemporary outpost on the rocky coast of Newfoundland, is one of the most striking hotels in North America. To get there, you fly to Gander, then drive an hour north to Farewell, where you catch the ferry to Fogo. The rates? They start at about $1,275 a night.(Alex Fradkin/Fogo Island Inn)
In Jamaica, the Blue Mountains are the longest range in sight. In Australia, the Blue Mountains are a popular day trip outside Sydney. In the Canadian province of Ontario, Blue Mountain is a 364-acre ski resort, which becomes a mountain-biking destination in summer. Here, Marielle Thompson, top right, of Canada, flies off the jump with Fanny Smith, top left, of Switzerland, and Ophelieas David, of France, as they compete in the women’s semifinals during the FIS Ski Cross World Cup at Blue Mountain on March 5, 2017.(Mark Blinch / Associated Press)
Spend any time in Canada and you will learn Tim Horton’s name. He was born in Cochrane, Ontario, and became a pro hockey player for 24 years, then died in a 1974 car accident at the age of 44. In the 10 years before his death, Horton had launched a second career, opening doughnut and coffee shops. The chain had about 40 locations before Horton’s death. Afterward, a partner bought out the Horton family interest and expansion accelerated. Now there are more than 4,300 Tim Horton restaurants in Canada and the U.S. This one is in Ottawa, Ontario.(Sean Kilpatrick / Associated Press)
Many lakes in the Canadian Rockies will make you feel very, very small. This hiker is standing on a scenic lookout overlooking Moraine Lake in Alberta.(Jordan Siemens / Getty Images)
Eastern Canada has plenty of attractions and hotels that are open only in summer. At the other end of the spectrum is the Hôtel de Glace, 30 minutes outside Quebec City. This 44-room ice lodging opened in 2001 and stays open from January to the last week in March.(©Xdachez.com / )
Canada sacrificed greatly in World War I. Fighting as part of the British Empire, it lost more than 60,000 Canadian soldiers from a total Canadian population of a little more than 7 million. (The U.S. lost about 116,000 from a total population of about 92 million.) Here, a man takes a photo of candles as sentries stand guard at the National War Memorial in Ottawa, Ontario, during an April 8 vigil to commemorate the anniversary of the Battle of Vimy Ridge in France.(Justin Tang / Associated Press)
The Canadian word for Grammy is Juno. That is, the Canada Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences throws an annual awards show to celebrate the country’s top musicians. The prizes are called Juno Awards. Oh, and these are the Strumbellas, winners of Group of the Year on April 2, 2017.(Lars Hagberg / AFP/Getty Images)
The Ottawa Senators are a relatively young hockey team... and a very old one. The original Senators played in the National Hockey League from 1917-1934, winning many Stanley Cups. The current NHL Senators were born in 1992 and have been perennial contenders ever since. This shot shows the start of a playoff game in their home arena between the Senators and the Boston Bruins.(Jana Chytilova/Freestyle Photo / Getty Images)
Canada’s parliament’s front yard in Ottawa is decorated with tulips in spring. These red and white blooms dotted the front lawn of Parliament Hill, where grand buildings have stood since the mid-19th century.(Adrian Wyld / Associated Press)
Emily Carr, a painter from British Columbia who was drawn to the landscapes and culture of First Nations peoples, plays a major role in the collection of the Vancouver Art Gallery. A U.S. visitor will be tempted to see her as a sort of Canadian Georgia O’Keeffe. But Carr lived 1871 to 1945, and O’Keeffe lived 1887-1986. So really, O’Keeffe was an American Carr. In any event, both were giants. From May 19, 2017, to March 4, 2018, the Vancouver Art Gallery will offer “Emily Carr: Into the Forest,” an exhibition that focuses on Carr’s vivid depictions of the coastal forests of British Columbia. This painting is her “Path Among Pines,” circa 1930, oil on paper, from the Collection of the Vancouver Art Gallery, Emily Carr Trust.( Rachel Topham, Vancouver Art Gallery)
Grand as it seems, the Banff Springs Hotel in the Canadian Rockies has an eastern sibling that might be even grander. The Château Frontenac, a Quebecois castle that towers over the St. Lawrence River, was part of the same railroad hotel-building campaign. It was completed in 1893, about six years after the Banff Springs hotel. (Two other grand dames from the same family: the Empress Hotel in Victoria, British Columbia, and the Château Lake Louise, not far from Banff in Alberta.)(Château Frontenac)
Canada’s smallest province, in land area and population, is Prince Edward Island. It has about 140,000 residents spread over about 2,185 square miles. That makes it bigger than Rhode Island and smaller than Delaware. But it has far fewer people than either of those states. This farmhouse is in Mayfield, near the center of the island.
(John Sylvester/Tourism PEI)
The city of Quebec’s narrow old streets are well-suited to snowy decoration. Here, night falls on a row of closed shops along Petit–Champlain Street.(Jocelyn Bernier)
Roadside signs in the province of Quebec include small religious shrines like these statues of Mary, Jesus and Joseph in shell-like shelters.(Margo Pfeiff )
The view from the boardwalk at Canada’s Saguenay Fjord National Park includes a broad swath of the St. Lawrence and Saguenay rivers from Pointe-Noire.(Michael S. Lewis/Corbis )
Just a few miles north of the U.S. border and east of Montreal, the Eastern Townships region of Quebec was developed by English Crown Loyalists in the late 1700s. The area’s country roads and historic buildings have become popular visitor destinations in the historically Anglophile region.(Tourism Eastern Townships )
Canada has about 1 million Muslims, which amounts to about 3% of the country’s population. (The U.S. has about 3 million Muslims, about 1% of the population.) This image shows Ginella Massa, a Toronto TV reporter who is thought to be Canada’s first anchor to don a Muslim head scarf at one of the city’s major news broadcasters.(Associated Press)
There’s a spot, along the line between Vermont and the Canadian province of Quebec, where a library stands astride the border. This is it: the Haskell Free Library and Opera House of Stanstead, Quebec (left) and Derby Line, Vt. (right). The neoclassical building was designed to straddle the border. Black tape marks the line.(Don Emmert / AFP/Getty Images)
The fences aren’t always obvious along the U.S.-Canada border. Here, a boundary stone marks the crossing between Beecher Falls, Vt., and East Hereford, Quebec.(Don Emmert / AFP/Getty Images)
The Manitoba Maritime Museum of Selkirk is set along the banks of the Red River. But its ferries and tugboats — half a dozen of them — are parked on the grass, not in the water.(Suedan Press )
Like many states in the U.S., Canada has been rethinking its marijuana laws. Here, two women smoke weed on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario, on April 20, 2017. Recent polling shows strong support in Canada for legalization, but opinions vary on what the minimum age to partake should be.(Lars Hagberg / AFP/Getty Images)
Winnipeg is north — 220 miles north of Fargo, N.D., in fact. But its beaches get summery too. This is West Hawk Lake, Whiteshell Provincial Park, Winnipeg, Manitoba.(Suedan Press )
Just as the U.S. has border troubles, so does Canada. In this image from early Sunday morning, Feb. 26, 2017, eight migrants from Somalia cross into Canada illegally from the U.S. by walking down a train track into the town of Emerson, Manitoba. In Emerson, they sought asylum at Canada Border Services Agency.(John Woods / Associated Press)
Wine country just east of Montreal includes Les Pervenches Winery, best known for its Chardonnay.(Christoph Heldt )
There is a town in southern Alberta called Vulcan. And that town’s 2,000 or so residents have a sense of humor. They hold a gathering known as Vul-Con (formerly Spock Days). The event celebrates Star Trek (whose character Spock was known as a Vulcan). The visitors center, called the Vulcan Tourism & Trek Station, is shaped like a flying saucer, shown here. Inside there’s a Leonard Nimoy stained-glass window.(Vulcan Tourism.com )
The waters off Newfoundland are known as “iceberg alley.”(Paul Daly / AP)
The Hotel Tadoussac, at the junction of the Saguenay and St. Lawrence rivers in Quebec’s Charlevoix Region, is one of the great grand old hotels of North America. The red-roofed, white-walled landmark dates to 1864.(Margo Pfeiff )
On the road in the Canadian Rockies, you can never be sure that you have the highway to yourself. Here, an elk crosses in front of a vehicle on a road that runs through Alberta’s Jasper National Park. Although the park covers 4,200 square miles, man and animal often cross paths, especially at dusk, when animal activity increases.(Karen Schwartz / Associated Press)
Public institutions that display art — which we usually call museums in the U.S. — are often known as galleries in Canada. The Art Gallery of Alberta, housed in a curvy 2010 building, brings a contemporary edge of the skyline of Edmonton. Architect Randall Stout of Los Angeles intended the ribbons of steel to echo the forms of the North Saskatchewan River and the Aurora Borealis in the winter sky.(Michael Wheatley / Getty Images/All Canada Photos)
This French River isn’t French and isn’t a river. It’s an extremely scenic fishing village set on an inlet of Prince Edward Island, Canada.(Stephen DesRoches/Tourism PEI)
These dramatic red-dirt rock cliffs are in the Darnley area on the north shore of Canada’s Prince Edward Island.(Shirley Gallant/Tourism PEI)
Canada’s Confederation Bridge, which links Prince Edward Island with mainland New Brunswick, was a controversial subject for years. Many local residents preferred to stick with ferry service. To resolve the matter, Canadian leaders put the proposed bridge up for a vote among residents of the island in 1988. About 59% voted yes. The span was completed in 1997.(Shirley Gallant/Tourism PEI)
It’s tiny compared with the rest of Canada’s provinces, but when it comes to literary fame, Prince Edward Island fares better than most. It is the setting of “Anne of Green Gables,” the beloved children’s novel written in 1908 by PEI native L.M. Montgomery. The main character (who continues through later books) is an 11-year-old orphan girl who finds herself on the island with a middle-aged brother and sister, the Cuthberts, as her guardians. The Anne of Green Gables Museum is housed in an 1872 home that Montgomery called “the wonder castle of my childhood.”(John Sylvester/Tourism PEI)
One of America’s best-loved baseball stories came from the brain of a Canadian. This 1992 photo shows Canadian author W.P. Kinsella standing on the field before a World Series game between the Toronto’s Blue Jays and the Atlanta Braves. Kinsella wrote the 1982 novel “Shoeless Joe,” which became the film “Field of Dreams.” He died in 2016 in Hope, British Columbia, at age 81.(Rusty Kennedy / Associated Press)
Hockey, skiing, snowboarding, curling and sledding may dominate the winters, but in the summer, many Canadians reach for their personal watercraft. Here, Paul King of Kamloops, British Columbia, flips on the Thompson River in Kamloops. The Western Canadian Watercross Assn. is staging several competitions in 2017.(Keith Anderson / Associated Press)
Parts of Canada make for excellent abstract art. This August 2000 NASA image shows Akimiski Island, Nunavut.(NASA )
The Yukon Quest International Sled Dog Race is a 1,000-mile international journey between Fairbanks, Alaska, and Whitehorse in Canada’s Yukon Territory. Just 14 teams completed the race in early 2017. In this scene from 2000, Thomas Tetz, of Tagish, Yukon Territory, makes his way along the Yukon River.(Erick Simanis / Associated Press)
The Yukon Territory is one of Canada’s least populous regions, with about 36,000 human residents. But that figure is actually a sign of growth. Government statistics show 6% population increase between 2011 and 2016. Here a distant coyote pauses near Tagish, Yukon, in a soft rain.(Daniel A. Anderson)
In the Yukon Territory of northwestern Canada, you can see caribou in the tundra. This 2009 photo shows the migrating animals making their way along the Porcupine River.(Rick Bowmer / Associated)
Most of the long border between Canada and the U.S. is on land. But to cross into Fort Kent, Maine (foreground), from Clair, New Brunswick (distance), you’ll need to take this international bridge. Or, on a properly cold day, you could skate.(Don Emmert/ AFP/Getty Images)
Amid global temperature fluctuations in recent years, there have been increasing reports of polar bears straying south from their traditional Arctic territory. Here, a polar bear cub sleeps with its mother on the frozen tundra on the edge of the Hudson Bay near Churchill, Manitoba.(Paul J. Richards / AFP/Getty Images)
On the immaculately maintained Prince Edward Island, even the post office looks like a vacation house you can’t afford. This is the Cavendish Post Office, a popular stopping point for fans of “Anne of Green Gables,” whose author, L.M. Montgomery, lived on the island. The post office features museum-like displays on the author’s life and local ties.(John Sylvester/Tourism PEI)
Air and water, cooling and warming in Canadian weather, can create some amazing spectacles. And about 15% of the province of Ontario is fresh water. Here, mist rises near two hikers at Lake Ontario during extreme cold weather in Toronto in February 2016.(Mark Blinch / Associated Press)
Once you’re north of the 49th parallel, curling becomes serious business. Here, New Brunswick’s Mike Kennedy performs a feat known as “releasing a rock” against Northwest Territories at the Tim Horton’s Brier curling championship in St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, on March 4, 2017.(Andrew Vaughan / Associated Press)
Believe it or not, there are parts of Canada that can be mistaken, at first glance, for Thailand. These are the Hopewell Rocks at Chocolate River, on the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick.(Education Images / UIG via Getty Images)
Pond hockey is a thing. And not a small one. Here, players battle for the puck during the first round of the World Pond Hockey Tournament in Pastor Rock, New Brunswick, Canada, in 2005. The 2017 tournament drew more than 100 teams.(Ryan Remiorz / Associated Press)
These seaside structures in eastern Canada are known as “fishing stages.” This one stood in the town of L’Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland.(Rolf Hicker / Getty Images/All Canada Photos)
For a single day, Canada’s Confederation Bridge was pedestrian only. On May 30, 1997, some 2,500 runners passed from Prince Edward Island to New Brunswick on the newly completed span on the Northumberland Strait. Since then, the eight-mile-long bridge has been open to cars.(Andrew Vaughan / Associated Press)
The Mackenzie River, more than 1,000 miles long, is the largest, longest river system in Canada. A resident of Fort Simpson, in the Northwest Territories, walks along the Mackenzie as the sun sets over the town.(Genaro Molina / Los Angeles Times)
The Mackenzie River region is rich in wildlife. Here a black bear walks on a bank of ice along the river south of Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories, in 2006. Minks, moose, caribou, beavers and wolverines dwell nearby, too.(Genaro Molina / Los Angeles Times)
Canada’s youngest territory is Nunavut, born in a split from the Northwest Territories in 1999. Here, fireworks light up the sky over Iqaluit, Nunavut’s capital, on its first day as a separate entity, April 1, 1999. Nunavut, whose population is mostly Inuit, is the product of the largest land-claims settlement in Canada’s history.(Kevin Frayer / Associated Press)
The road to Mars apparently leads through Canada’s Arctic north. These tents were pitched on the rocky ground near the Haughton Impact Crater on Devon Island, Nunavut, in July 2006, where scientists conducting Mars-related research slept during their visit. The tent in the foreground — the one with the Chicago White Sox banner — belonged to Dr. Richard Scheuring, a NASA flight surgeon and native Chicagoan. A private group called the Mars Society runs a simulated Mars outpost in Canada’s High Arctic each summer.(Howard Witt / Chicago Tribune)
Canada’s Nunavut Territory is vast, but its population is only about 37,000, mostly Inuit people. This child was photographed in the city of Iqaluit in 1999, the year that Nunavut split off from the Northwest Territories to become a separate political entity. Iqaluit, on Baffin Island, is the region’s capital.(Tim Atherton /PictureDesk)
In “Anne of Green Gables,” the 1908 novel that made pastoral Prince Edward Island famous around the world, author L.M. Montgomery mentions the beautiful Lake of the Shining Waters. These days, with much of the area preserved as part of Prince Edward Island National Park, many ponds on the island fit that lake’s description.(John Sylvester/Tourism PEI)
Yes, there really are igloos in Canada. But in many circles, “iglu” is the preferred spelling. Especially in Nunavut, to the north. In this shot from 1999, Lypa Pitsiulak, an Inuit living in the Opingivik area of Nunavut, covers the opening of an iglu — that’s Inuktitut for igloo — which he constructed on an ice floe. Behind Pitsiulak is an “inuksuit,” a human shape used by the Inuit as a landmark.(Stephan Savoia / Associated Press)
The Halifax Seaport Farmers Market nowadays does business in a 21st century building full of energy-saving bells and whistles. But the market traces its roots to 1750.(Christopher Reynolds)
British Columbia’s Sea to Sky Highway (a.k.a. Highway 99) covers 101 coastal miles from Vancouver to just north of Whistler. In between natural panoramas, you get small-town sights, including this street signage in Squamish (population: about 17,000).(Margo Pfeiff )
About three miles south of Squamish, British Columbia, Shannon Falls plummets 1,100 feet. The falls can be viewed from the end of an easy trail, which starts at a parking lot along the Sea to Sky Highway.(Margo Pfeiff )
Miles Canyon, here crossed by a suspension bridge for pedestrians, channels the Yukon River just south of Whitehorse, at the southern end of the Yukon Territory.(Daniel A. Anderson)
Many of Canada’s most scenic parks can’t be directly reached by road. One is Atikaki Provincial Wilderness Park, a popular canoeing spot east of Lake Winnipeg near the Ontario boundary. Here, two visitors appear to have been abandoned by their yoga instructor.(Canadian Tourism Commission)
As many as 40,000 military-aged American men may have dodged the draft by moving to Canada in the 1960s and ‘70s. Many ended up as community pillars in pleasant small towns like Nelson (population: about 10,000) in the Selkirk mountains of British Columbia. All these years later, Nelson still has a hippie vibe and a reputation as a rich territory for cannabis cultivation, though many Americans know it better as the setting for Steve Martin’s 1987 film “Roxanne.”
As as increasing number of U.S. states move to legalize recreational use of marijuana, Canadian provinces have not. But plenty of pot gets smoked anyway. At least one study has found that British Columbia leads Canada’s provinces in cannabis appreciation. Here, a bicyclist in the Selkirk mountains town of Nelson has made his pot preference clear.(Christopher Reynolds)
Even in their infrastructure, the Canadians invest a sense of humor. Take, for instance, the Selkirk mountain town of Nelson, where a big, orange bridge has stretched across Kootenay Lake since the 1950s. Officially, the span is known as the Nelson Bridge, but locals prefer to call it BOB.(Christopher Reynolds)
Halifax, the historic port and capital of Novia Scotia, is also a lively college town, with six universities and all the shops, eateries and bars that usually come with such a population. Here, the merchants of Queen Street in downtown Halifax beckon customers with bright paint jobs. Toronto’s Globe and Mail called Halifax “the ultimate college town.”(Christopher Reynolds)
In a country that has given birth to Labatt and Molson, it should be no surprise that beer brewing is a thing. Especially in the West. The many craft brewers in Vancouver include Bomber Brewing Co., founded in 2014, which offers tastings at its brewery on Adanac Street. (By the way, the drinking age is 19 in British Columbia, 18 in neighboring Alberta.)(John Lee )
Half of Saskatechewan is covered by forest, one-third by farmland, one-eighth by fresh water.(Greg Huszar / Tourism Saskatetchewan)
Haida Gwaii, previously known as the Queen Charlotte Islands, are full of dramatic scenery, aboriginal history and people messing around on boats. This is Ocean Light II in Anna Inlet.
Manitoba has a Golden Boy, and he cavorts about 250 feet above Winnipeg’s movers and shakers. He’s the tiny, gleaming, decorative figure atop this building, the Manitoba Legislature Building (1920). Architectural researchers think he’s meant to be the Greek god Hermes. The building also features two sphynxes and a pair of bison.(Finn O’Hara/ Canadian Tourism Commission)
Fort Whyte, Winnipeg, was never a fort. Once a site of skirmishing over railroad rivalries, it later became an industrial site for clay and gravel-mining. But about 50 years ago, the site was reclaimed as open space. Now known as FortWhyte Alive, it’s a magnet for birders who say they see up to 160 bird species yearly, many of them migrating along the Mississippi Flyway. This view is from the Fort Whyte Alive Nature Centre.(Dan Harper/Tourism Winnipeg)
One of Canada’s grand railway hotels, the Hotel Fort Garry, was built in 1913 by the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. It stands one block from Union Station in Manitoba.(Canadian Tourism Commission)
Samuel Cunard, raised in Halifax and memorialized by a waterfront statue there, went on to be a pioneer in the ship industry. In 1839, Cunard (1787-1865) won the contract to ship British mail across the Atlantic. By the 1940s, Cunard was the leading transatlantic passenger line. Nowdays, the name endures on a line with three deluxe ships offering transatlantic cruises. (Since 1998, Cunard has been owned by Carnival Corp.)(Christopher Reynolds)
Lake Louise, in Banff National Park, is best known for its deep green hues in summer. But in winter, it freezes solidly enough to become one of the planet’s most scenic skating rinks. This photo was shot in fall, as the lake was still freezing. Skipping stones produced thunderous, echoing sound effects.(Christopher Reynolds)
If there were a Hall of Fame for cities that have played a crucial role in North American folk music, Halifax would be in it. The port city has housed many a musician and is mentioned in many a lyric. Singers and strummers keep the tradition alive with year-round busking despite cold winters. Here, a group called the Fine Tuners entertains shoppers at the Halifax Seaport Farmers Market.(Christopher Reynolds)
If you’re ready to get up at dawn, a great photo op awaits you just outside Banff at Vermilion Lakes. In winter you get snow and ice. In summer, you get reflections on the water. And sometimes, if you’re lucky, you get both. That’s Mt. Rundle blotting out most of the sun.(Christopher Reynolds)
Because of its location near the spot where the Titanic sank in 1912, Halifax became the destination for scores of corpses pulled from the Atlantic. Fairview Lawn Cemetery, pictured here, holds more than 120 Titanic victims and draws a steady stream of visitors. (Yes, there’s a grave for J Dawson. And, yes, Leonardo DiCaprio’s character in the “Titanic” film was named Jack Dawson. But DiCaprio’s character was a fictional creation. The grave name is apparently just a coincidence.)(Christopher Reynolds)
Halifax plays a key role in Canada’s martime history — and Titanic history too. Here, ship-modelers John Green, left, and Gerald Wright near completion of a Titanic model in the city’s Maritime Museum of the Atlantic.(Christopher Reynolds)
Sunshine Village, one of three ski areas in Banff National Park, has 12 lifts on about 3,358 skiable acres. Its season usually begins in November. The resort’s Sunshine Mountain Lodge stands slopeside, about 10 miles from downtown Banff.(Christopher Reynolds)
Gander, the Newfoundland town whose airport and residents took in dozens of jets and thousands of U.S. travelers the week of 9/11, has been played a crucial role in transatlantic air travel since the early 20th century. In March 2017 the town gained another measure of fame when the play “Come From Away” — about those 9/11 days in Gander — premiered on Broadway. In this 2011 photo, Gander resident Beulah Cooper sits at her dining room showing off cards and letters from visitors she hosted during that 2001 crisis.(Robert Gillies / Associated Press)
Every winter, Rideau Canal in Ottawa, the Canadian capital, is transformed into a giant ice rink. The canal, which dates to 1832 and connects Ottawa to Kingston (on Lake Ontario), is used for pleasure boating in warmer months.
Henry Pellatt, a Canadian financier, built Casa Loma in 1914. The mansion endures as one of Toronto’s grand historical monuments. Its grounds include five acres of gardens, an 800-foot tunnel and secret passages. When Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau wanted to host Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto for a dinner in June 2016, he chose Casa Loma as the venue.( Barrett & MacKay/Getty Images)
Mt. Rundle, a marquee attraction in Banff National Park and one of the Canadian Rockies’ most prominent peaks, was named for a missionary. The Rev. Robert Rundle reached the area in the 1840s. Here, downtown Banff stands in the foreground on a late fall day, the mountain looming beyond.(Christopher Reynolds)
As if the mountains, lakes and meadows weren’t enough to distinguish Banff National Park, the area also has hot springs. The most popular soaking spot is Upper Hot Springs, Banff. As of spring 2017, the cost of entrance was $7.30 (Canadian) per adult, a dollar less for children and seniors.(Christopher Reynolds)
When a Canadian says “prairie” or “grassland,” he or she may well be thinking of Saskatchewan, a sprawling central province that borders the U.S. on its southern edge. Its capital is Regina, its biggest city Saskatoon. The province is roughly the size of California and Oregon combined.(Greg Huszar )
Unlike most U.S. national parks, Banff National Park, a highlight of the Canadian Rockies, contains three ski resorts: Mt. Norquay, the Lake Louise Ski Resort and Sunshine Village. Here, a ski school student launches downhill at Lake Louise.
Even for Newfoundlanders accustomed to passing icebergs, this was a big one. It was spotted in early April 2017, near Ferryland, an hour south of St. John’s. When bergs like this show up, fishermen say, traditional shipping routes are set aside and captains take care to steer clear.(Paul Daly / AP)
Many of Canada’s lighthouses predate 1850. The East Quoddy Lighthouse, also known as the Head Harbour lightstation, has stood on Campobello island, New Brunswick, Canada, since 1830.(Maryann Flick / Getty Images)
There’s something about Niagara Falls that makes people want to risk their necks, either in falling barrels, aboard personal watercraft or on a tight-stretched cable. Here, Jay Cochrane skywalks near the Canadian Falls at Niagara Falls in May 2002. His walk covered about 200 feet from the pinnacle of the Sheraton on the Falls Hotel to the Casino Tower in Niagara Falls, Ontario, at a height of about 40 stories. It won him widespread attention. And then 10 years later, daredevil Nik Wallenda walked on a wire closer to the roaring water, on live TV.(Mark D. Phillips/ AFP)
On July 1, 1867, after three years of populist revolt and bloody battle, the Dominion of Canada was born.
Just kidding. Modern Canada’s birth on that day 150 years ago was mostly a matter of polite conferences and prudent compromises among colonial leaders in Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, along with a discreet nod from the Queen of England.
There had been plenty of blood, sweat, tears and conflict before that, and there would be more after. But in the 1860s, confederation seemed like an urgent idea.
If they didn’t knit themselves more closely together, some Canadian leaders worried, the U.S. (which had just waged its own Civil War and bought Alaska from Russia) might just try to grab up more of North America.
So the Canadians made themselves into a more perfect union while still retaining ties to the United Kingdom. By 1885, the country had added the province of British Columbia and built a rail route to underline its coast-to-coast identity.
But of course there’s more to the Canadian story than that. There are now 10 provinces and three territories. There’s Justin Trudeau. There’s Justin Bieber.
In honor of the 150th Canada Day on July 1, here are 150 things to know and 150 transporting images from above the 49th parallel.
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