Olaf Scholz succeeds Angela Merkel as German chancellor, opening a new era

A woman in a dark suit, left, holding a red-and-white bouquet of flowers gestures to a smiling man standing beside her
New German Chancellor Olaf Scholz, right, with predecessor Angela Merkel during the official transfer of office in Berlin on Dec. 8, 2021.

(Sean Gallup / Getty Images)

Center-left leader Olaf Scholz became Germany’s ninth post-World War II chancellor Wednesday, opening a new era for the European Union’s most populous nation and largest economy after Angela Merkel’s 16-year tenure.

Scholz’s government takes office with high hopes of modernizing Germany and combating climate change but faces the immediate challenge of handling the country’s toughest phase yet of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Lawmakers in the Bundestag voted 395-303 to elect Scholz, with six abstentions — a comfortable majority, though short of the 416 seats his three-party coalition holds in the 736-seat lower house of Parliament. That’s not unusual when chancellors are elected, and some lawmakers were out sick.


Scholz was formally appointed by Germany’s president, then returned to Parliament to be sworn in. The new chancellor, who has no religious affiliation, omitted the optional phrase “so help me God” from his oath of office — as did Merkel’s predecessor, Gerhard Schroeder.

Then-Secretary of State Michael R. Pompeo shaking hands with then-German Chancellor Angela Merkel
Then-Secretary of State Michael R. Pompeo shakes hands with then-German Chancellor Angela Merkel in Berlin in November 2019.
(Hannibal Hanschke / Pool Photo)

Merkel, who is no longer a member of Parliament, looked on from the spectators’ gallery during the vote. Lawmakers gave her a standing ovation as the session started.

Scholz, 63, Germany’s vice chancellor and finance minister since 2018, brings a wealth of experience and discipline to an untried coalition of his center-left Social Democrats, the environmentalist Greens and the pro-business Free Democrats. The three parties are portraying the combination of former rivals as a progressive alliance that will bring new energy to the country after Merkel’s near-record time in office.

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“We are venturing a new departure, one that takes up the major challenges of this decade and well beyond that,” Scholz said Tuesday. If the parties succeed, he added, “that is a mandate to be reelected together at the next election.”

Scholz, an unflappable and self-confident figure who in the past has displayed an ability to put aside setbacks quickly, cracked a smile as he was elected and as he was formally appointed by President Frank-Walter Steinmeier.

Merkel has said she won’t seek another political role. The 67-year-old hasn’t disclosed any future plans but said earlier this year that she will take time to read and sleep, “and then let’s see where I show up.”


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Scholz’s style has often been likened to Merkel’s, although they are from different parties. Like the former chancellor, Scholz isn’t given to public displays of emotion or rousing speeches. He has portrayed himself in recent months both as her natural successor and an agent of change, and styles himself as a strong leader.

The new government aims to step up efforts against climate change by expanding the use of renewable energy and bringing Germany’s exit from coal-fired power forward from 2038 to 2030. It also wants to do more to modernize the country, including improving its notoriously poor cellphone and internet networks.

It plans more liberal social policies, including legalizing the sale of cannabis for recreational purposes and easing the path to German citizenship while pledging greater efforts to deport immigrants who don’t win asylum. The coalition partners want to lower the voting age in national elections from 18 to 16.

The government also plans to increase Germany’s minimum wage to 12 euros ($13.50) per hour, which Scholz has said would means “a wage increase for 10 million.” And the coalition pledged to get 400,000 new apartments built per year in an effort to curb rising rental prices.

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Scholz has signaled continuity in foreign policy, saying the government would stand up for a strong European Union and nurture the transatlantic alliance. The new government said he would make his first trip abroad with a visit to Paris on Friday — maintaining a tradition for German chancellors — and then travel to Brussels the same day to meet EU and North Atlantic Treaty Organization leaders.

The three-party alliance brings both opportunities and risks for all the participants, perhaps most of all the Greens. After 16 years in opposition, they will have to prove that they can achieve their overarching aim of cutting greenhouse gas emissions while working with partners who may have other priorities.

Greens co-leader Robert Habeck will be Scholz’s vice chancellor, heading a revamped economy and climate ministry. The government’s No. 3 official will be Christian Lindner, the finance minister and leader of the Free Democrats, who insisted that the coalition reject tax hikes and looser curbs on running up debt.

“It won’t be easy to keep three different parties together,” Schroeder, who led Germany from 1998 to 2005 as the country’s last center-left chancellor, told Phoenix television. “But I think Olaf Scholz has the patience, but also the determination, to manage it.”

The incoming government is portraying itself as a departure in both style and substance from the “grand coalitions” of Germany’s traditional big parties that Merkel led for all but four years of her tenure, with the Social Democrats as junior partners.

In those tense alliances, the partners sometimes seemed preoccupied mostly with blocking each other’s plans. Merkel’s final term saw frequent infighting, some of it within her own center-right Union bloc, until the pandemic hit. She departs with a legacy defined largely by her acclaimed handling of a series of crises rather than any grand visions for Germany.

The agreement to form a coalition government between three parties that had significant differences before the election was reached relatively quickly and in unexpected harmony. That will now be tested by the reality of governing; Scholz has acknowledged that dealing with the pandemic “will demand all our strength and energy.”

German federal and state leaders last week announced tough new restrictions that largely target unvaccinated people. In a longer-term move, Parliament will consider a general vaccine mandate. Germany has seen daily coronavirus infections rise to record levels this fall, though they may now be stabilizing, and hospitals are feeling the strain. The country has suffered more than 104,000 COVID-19 deaths so far.

“People are hoping that you ... will show leadership and take the right measures,” Steinmeier, Germany’s ceremonial president, told the newly appointed Cabinet. “What matters is not listening to the loudest, but ensuring that the pandemic doesn’t keep us firmly in its grip for another year and that public life can once again become a matter of course.”