The first suppers

Smith is editor of "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America."

Barack Obama will be sworn into office on Tuesday -- just weeks before the bicentennial of Abraham Lincoln’s birth. Obama’s inaugural theme, “A New Birth of Freedom,” has, fittingly, been drawn from his fellow Illinoisan’s Gettysburg Address, and he’s supposed to be sworn in using Lincoln’s own Bible. The inaugural menu is based on what supposedly were some of Lincoln’s favorite foods, and even the inaugural china is a replica of that used in the Lincoln White House. Despite these connections, let’s hope that Obama’s inaugural meal does not duplicate Lincoln’s first, which turned into a food fight.

Lincoln’s inaugural committee had planned a lavish midnight buffet for the inaugural ball: terrapin stew, leg of veal, beef a l’anglais, foie gras, pate, cream candies, fruit ices, tarts, cakes and more. The venue was the Patent Office, which had two spacious halls for dancing and dining. The buffet was set out in a corridor where patent models were displayed.

When the grand supper was announced, after several hours of dancing, the crowd rushed the table and people began grabbing, pushing and stuffing themselves shamelessly. In a matter of minutes, the sumptuous buffet was a shambles -- as were several of the patent exhibits.

Simple beginnings


Over the last 200 years, food has been an integral part of the celebrations surrounding the transition of power from one American president to another. The menus served at inaugural events have been a mixed bag -- sometimes displaying ostentatiousness, other times political symbolism and still other times just simplicity.

Things started out quietly and on the simple side. George Washington took the oath of office in New York City (the new nation’s first capital); as Martha had not yet arrived from Mount Vernon, George dined alone. After John Adams was inaugurated, he repaired to his boardinghouse, where he too ate a solitary meal. Thomas Jefferson, notably more convivial, dined with 30 others after his inauguration -- but, like Adams, at a boardinghouse.

It was James Madison who broke with tradition, celebrating his 1809 inauguration with a ball, including a midnight supper for 400. The menu has been lost, but tradition has it that ice cream, then a “fancy dish,” was served. Ever since Madison’s time, new presidents have been feted with more and more elaborate events, most of them featuring a festive meal.

The shocking melee at Lincoln’s party had a precedent: the reception held for Andrew Jackson, the “man of the people,” whose 1829 inauguration was attended by thousands. When Jackson returned to the White House after the ceremony, he was followed by some 20,000 rowdy well-wishers hellbent on getting refreshments: ice cream, cake and lemonade.


The mob all but destroyed the White House; Jackson was forced to exit by a back door. The White House steward finally lured guests outside with tubs of whiskey-laced punch. (Jackson did have a steak dinner with guests that night, but there was no ball, as his wife had recently died.)

Despite occasional problems, most inaugural parties have succeeded in impressing guests while also amply satisfying their hunger and thirst.

James Buchanan, the only bachelor president, really knew how to party. At his inaugural celebration in 1857, guests were served 400 gallons of oysters, 500 quarts of chicken salad, 500 quarts of jellies, 1,200 quarts of ice cream, eight rounds of beef, 75 hams, 60 saddles of mutton and four of venison. Buchanan hired Charles Gautier, a French caterer and chocolatier, to handle the preparations.

James A. Garfield’s inauguration dinner in 1881 was supplied with 15,000 “assorted cakes,” 3,000 rolls, 350 loaves of bread, 100 gallons of pickled oysters and 250 gallons of coffee.

Benjamin Harrison’s 1889 menu included oysters a la poulette, cold tongue en Bellevue, breast of quail a la Ciceron, terrine of game a la Morton and pate de foie gras a la Harrison; among the desserts were Bonbons Republican. But most impressive was a cake in the shape of the Capitol building -- 6 feet high, nearly 9 feet square and weighing 800 pounds.

Plain dinners

Of course, not all inaugurals have been so grand. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s four dinners were not particularly distinguished. Henrietta Nesbitt, the first family’s housekeeper, prepared the food for three of them. In 1937, she served ham, tongue and a sweet potato casserole topped with marshmallows -- Eleanor Roosevelt’s favorite.

For FDR’s fourth inauguration, during World War II, the president requested chicken a la king, but Nesbitt protested that she couldn’t keep it hot while serving 2,000 guests. Instead, she offered an austere, ration-conscious “ladies’ lunch” of cold chicken salad, rolls (no butter), cake (no frosting) and coffee (no sugar). To make matters worse, some of the chicken had spoiled and had to be thrown out.


George Jessel, the luncheon’s toastmaster, posed the question, “How is it humanly possible to make chicken salad with so much celery and so little chicken?”

Harry S. Truman brought back the full-scale inaugural ball and dinner. His 1949 party at the Barkley Club offered a six-course meal complete with American wine pairings for each course. The menu included green turtle soup, baked asparagus tips, mixed green salad with knob celery, and fonds d’artichaut, leading one critic to complain that the dinner had too many green foods on the menu.

Some 20th century presidents held “Minorities Dinners” at their inaugurations. In 1957, President Eisenhower’s menu included gefilte fish, minestrone and Greek salad. Understandably, some found this function patronizing, and President Kennedy quietly dropped it in 1961. Kennedy’s inaugural dinners emphasized American specialties -- crab gumbo, lobster Newburg, even tuna salad.

Inaugural parties increased in size and number as the century progressed. Eisenhower held two. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson each held five, Richard Nixon, six. Jimmy Carter abjured a ball, offering instead low-cost inaugural parties accessible to all. In place of an elaborate meal, guests were served peanuts and pretzels.

Ronald Reagan celebrated his first inauguration in 1981 with eight events. One dinner included medallions of chicken piquant and California garden salad. At another, guests were served abalone bisque, a specialty of the Sardine Factory, a Monterey restaurant that was a Reagan favorite. Guests at those inaugural parties downed 40 million jelly beans, the president’s trademark snack.

At George H.W. Bush’s inaugural dinner in 1989, about 2,400 attendees dined on a chic American menu: crab pate with dill dressing and walnut pepper bread; loin of veal stuffed with wild-mushroom and sage dressing; salad topped with Vermont cheddar; and for dessert, cranberry-apple brown betty.

At President Clinton’s inaugural dinners in 1993, the menus featured folksy American food -- a “cross between a state dinner at the White House and a traditional Arkansas Raccoon Supper,” as one observer pointed out. The wines were the finest America had to offer.

President George W. Bush’s first inaugural dinner in 2001 maintained the American theme with a native seafood assortment, lamb, chard sauteed with cranberries, and a mushroom and corn souffle. Dessert was an apple tart with cinnamon ice cream. At his second inaugural dinner, in 2005, guests enjoyed lobster medallions with orange and grapefruit sections, filet of beef tenderloin with asparagus, baby carrots, potatoes au gratin and Georgia peach crumble with vanilla ice cream.


A Lincoln theme

What’s on Obama’s menu? The inaugural lunch presented by the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, which will follow the swearing-in, will be three courses, starting with a seafood stew, supposedly a favorite of Lincoln’s, followed by “a brace of American birds” -- pheasant and duck served with sour cherry chutney and molasses sweet potatoes, inspired by Lincoln’s childhood on the Kentucky-Indiana frontier. Dessert will be apple-cinnamon sponge cake and sweet cream glace, and the wines will be from California’s Duckhorns -- a Sauvignon Blanc from the family’s Napa property and the “Goldeneye” Pinot Noir from its Mendocino property.

The 200 guests will include family members of the new president and vice president as well as prospective members of the new Cabinet, congressional leadership and members of the Supreme Court. Presumably, all will be well-behaved.





William H. Harrison’s poundcake, 1841

Total time: 1 1/2 hours

Servings: 8

Note: This recipe, inspired by the original 1841 recipe, was reconfigured by test kitchen manager Noelle Carter to follow a more reliable modern method for making poundcake while still honoring the flavors of the original, in which generous amounts of cinnamon, mace, nutmeg, wine, brandy and rose water were added to the batter before baking.

1/2 cup plus 2 tablespoons (1 1/4 sticks) butter, at room temperature

3/4 cup sugar

3 large eggs, at room temperature

1 1/2 cups cake flour

1 teaspoon cinnamon

1/4 teaspoon powdered mace

1 tablespoon grated nutmeg

1/2 teaspoon baking powder

2 tablespoons white wine

2 tablespoons brandy

2 tablespoons rose water

3 drops lemon oil

1. Heat the oven to 350 degrees.

2. In the bowl of a stand mixer, or in a large bowl with a hand mixer, beat the butter until it is light in texture.

3. With the mixer running, slowly add the sugar and continue to beat until the mixture is light and fluffy and almost white in color, several minutes.

4. Beat in the eggs, one at a time, until each is fully incorporated.

5. In a large bowl, sift together the flour, cinnamon, mace, nutmeg and baking powder.

6. In a measuring cup, combine the wine, brandy, rose water and oil.

7. Slowly incorporate the dry ingredients and liquids into the batter: With the mixer running, add one-third each of the dry and liquid ingredients, alternating between the two. As each is incorporated, continue to add a third each until the batter is well-mixed, scraping the sides as you go.

8. Place the batter in a greased and floured 8-by-4-inch loaf pan.

9. Bake the cake until a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean, about 1 hour, rotating the pan halfway through baking for even coloring. If the cake begins to color too much before it is done, cover it loosely with greased foil.

10. Cool the cake in the loaf pan on a rack for several minutes. Remove the cake from the pan directly to the rack to cool completely.

Each serving: 332 calories; 5 grams protein; 39 grams carbohydrates; 1 gram fiber; 16 grams fat; 10 grams saturated fat; 117 mg. cholesterol; 60 mg. sodium.


James A. Garfield’s pickled oysters, 1881

Total time: 20 minutes, plus chilling time

Servings: 8 to 10

1 quart of oysters in their liquor

1/2 cup cider vinegar

1 teaspoon salt

1/8 teaspoon mace

10 cloves

10 peppercorns

10 allspice berries

1/8 teaspoon cayenne pepper

1. In a medium saucepan, cook the oysters in their liquor over high heat until plump, 5 to 7 minutes, stirring occasionally.

2. Strain and reserve the oysters, keeping the liquor in the pan.

3. Stir the vinegar, salt, mace, cloves, peppercorns, allspice berries and cayenne into the liquor and bring to a boil over high heat. Boil the mixture for 5 minutes, then remove from heat.

4. Pour the mixture over the oysters and refrigerate, uncovered, until cold. Seal and refrigerate. The oysters will keep, refrigerated, for up to 2 weeks.

Each of 10 servings: 70 calories; 7 grams protein; 5 grams carbohydrates; 0 fiber; 2 grams fat; 1 gram saturated fat; 55 mg. cholesterol; 344 mg. sodium.


George W. Bush’s fillet of beef with three-peppercorn sauce, 2001

Total time: 1 hour, 20 minutes

Servings: 6 to 8

Note: Adapted from Walter Scheib, former White House chef

Three-peppercorn sauce

1 1/2 teaspoons oil

1/3 cup peeled and diced carrot

1/3 cup diced Spanish onion

2 tablespoons thinly sliced leek (white part only)

2 tablespoons chopped shallot

1 1/2 teaspoons chopped garlic

1 1/2 teaspoons crushed mixed peppercorns (black, green and pink)

2 sprigs fresh thyme

1 small bay leaf

2 tablespoons Cognac

2 tablespoons red wine

1 1/2 teaspoons balsamic vinegar

2 cups low-sodium beef broth


Freshly ground black pepper

1. Heat a small, heavy-bottom saucepan over medium-high heat. Add the oil, then the carrot, onion, leek, shallot, garlic and peppercorns and saute until the vegetables are tender, 3 to 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Stir in the thyme and bay leaf and cook for 30 seconds.

2. Stir in the Cognac and red wine. Bring to a boil and cook until reduced by one-third, about 3 minutes.

3. Add the vinegar and broth and bring to a boil over high heat, then reduce the heat and simmer until reduced by one-third, about 30 minutes.

4. Strain the sauce through a fine-mesh strainer set over a bowl and discard the solids. Season to taste with salt and pepper and keep covered in a warm place until needed.

Fillet of beef and assembly

1 center-cut beef tenderloin, 1 1/2 to 2 pounds, trimmed and tied at 1-inch intervals


Freshly ground black pepper

1 tablespoon olive oil, divided

Three-peppercorn sauce

1. Remove the tenderloin from the refrigerator one hour before starting the recipe.

2. Heat the oven to 425 degrees. Season the beef generously with 1 teaspoon salt and one-half teaspoon pepper, or to taste.

3. In a large, heavy-bottom saute pan, heat the oil over high heat. Brown the tenderloin on all sides, 5 to 8 minutes. Remove from heat.

4. Place the tenderloin on a rack in a roasting pan; do not wash the saute pan. Roast the beef until a thermometer inserted reads 125 degrees for medium-rare, about 20 minutes, longer for more well-done. Transfer the tenderloin to a cutting board for several minutes to rest.

5. While the tenderloin is resting, return the saute pan to the stove top over medium-high heat. Ladle one-half cup of the sauce and cook, scraping any flavorful bits from the bottom of the pan. Heat the sauce over high heat and boil for 2 minutes. Strain the liquid through a fine-mesh strainer into the rest of the sauce.

6. To serve, cut the ties from the beef and slice the tenderloin crosswise into one-half-inch slices. Place 2 to 3 slices on each dinner plate. Spoon some sauce over each serving and pass any remaining sauce alongside.

Each of 8 servings: 263 calories; 30 grams protein; 1 gram carbohydrates; 0 fiber; 13 grams fat; 4 grams saturated fat; 70 mg. cholesterol; 471 mg. sodium.


Commander in chef

Despite some foodie salivating over the idea of a star wearing the chef’s whites in Barack Obama’s kitchen, the current White House chef is keeping her job. Michelle Obama says she and the White House chef have something in common, and she’s looking forward to a collaboration.

“Cristeta Comerford brings such incredible talent to the White House operation and came very highly regarded from the Bush family,” Obama said in a statement released last week by the president-elect’s transition team. “Also the mom of a young daughter, I appreciate our shared perspective on the importance of healthy eating and healthy families.”

The Obamas eat at such well-regarded Chicago restaurants as Spiaggia and Rick Bayless’ Topolobampo and Frontera Grill. Among some in the food community, including Alice Waters of Chez Panisse, there was hope that the White House chef would be a forceful public culinary voice.

Comerford, a native of the Philippines, was appointed in August 2005 to replace chef Walter Scheib -- making her the first woman in the job that entails managing and preparing food for the first family in private as well as for official functions. According to the White House website, she had worked as an assistant chef in the presidential home since 1995. Comerford is not giving interviews, a transition team spokeswoman said.

Waters, who along with Gourmet Editor Ruth Reichl (a former Times restaurant critic and food editor) and New York restaurateur Danny Meyer offered to advise the Obamas on food, says that she’s happy Comerford is staying and that she hopes to meet with her Friday when she is in Washington. “I’m very pleased that it’s not a celebrity, in the sense of someone who gave the impression that food was about going to fancy restaurants,” Waters said Monday. “The idea is that good food is a right for all Americans and not just for the privileged people who can afford it.”

There has also been a push for growing more food at the White House.

Thousands have petitioned for a garden on the “first lawn” -- providing “the local-est food of all,” said Roger Doiron, founder of the nonprofit Kitchen Gardeners International, which started one such drive.

“America’s house should have a garden,” he said.

-- Mary MacVean