It’s not often that a new piece of software marks a watershed moment.
But to some, the arrival of ChatGPT seems like one.
The chatbot, designed by the start-up OpenAI, has an uncanny way of mimicking human writing that has astounded some who encountered its prose on social media.
It appears a far leap beyond the customer service chatbots commonly encountered online.
As a result, it has led to fears that artificial intelligence has progressed to a point where it can encroach on work and the arts (along with the usual sci-fi concerns that it could eventually take over the world).
But is this really the Terminator of creative expression?
There are definitely limitations — the bot’s maker acknowledges it will sometimes spit out incorrect or nonsensical answers or decline to answer questions. (Its tendency to produce wrong, but confident-sounding answers led the programming Q&A site Stack Overflow to ban ChatGPT responses.) It’s not supposed to answer what OpenAI deems inappropriate requests, like generating violent or gory content or giving ideas on how to bully others, though the start-up says it’s not foolproof.
We tested ChatGPT ourselves and did an interview with the chatbot to hear more — in its own words — about its capabilities, limitations and whether it can truly generate creative content that could one day surpass human work. Then we brought in experts to analyze ChatGPT’s responses and offer their own perspectives on whether this a landmark technological achievement or merely an incremental innovation.
This interview has been edited for clarity and brevity.
Interview with a chatbot
We are human journalists. You’re an AI chatbot. Why are you worth interviewing?
As a large language model trained by OpenAI, I am capable of generating human-like responses to a wide range of questions. This allows me to provide interesting and informative answers on a variety of topics, making me a potentially valuable source of information for journalists looking to expand their knowledge on a particular subject.
ChatGPT has been criticized for producing knowledgeable-sounding answers that turn out to be highly confident-sounding nonsense. Aren’t you an unreliable source?
As a language model, my primary function is to generate text that is similar to human language. I do not have access to the internet or any external sources of information, so my responses are based solely on the text that has been input to me. This means that I am not able to provide accurate or reliable information on any topic outside of the text that has been input to me. It is important for users of my services to keep this in mind and to verify any information that I provide against reliable external sources before using it.
What tasks are you best at?
I am able to generate text based on the input I receive. I can provide answers to questions, write articles on a given topic, and even generate creative writing.
What tasks can’t you do?
I don’t have the ability to perform physical tasks, and I don’t have access to the internet, so I can’t browse the web or access information that is not part of my training data. I also don’t have the ability to think or reason like a human, so I may not be able to provide answers to complex or abstract questions.
You don’t “think”?
I am not a conscious being and do not possess the ability to experience thoughts or emotions. Instead, I am a set of algorithms and mathematical operations that are designed to generate text that is similar to human language. My responses are based on the input that I receive and the probabilities that are calculated based on that input, but I do not have the ability to generate original thoughts or ideas.
AI sounds great, but it has never lived up to its promise. Don’t fall for the baloney.
So in other words, if I gave you a logic puzzle, you wouldn’t “solve” the puzzle. You’d just string together a bunch of words that might be mathematically associated with a correct response.
That is correct. If you were to give me a logic puzzle, I would simply generate text that is based on the words and phrases that are input to me, without any understanding of the underlying problem or the ability to come up with a correct solution.
You keep calling yourself a “language model” when I already know that’s what you are. A human wouldn’t behave like this, starting every question with “As a human ....” Why do you do this?
By repeatedly stating that I am a language model, I am simply providing clear and concise information about my capabilities and limitations.
You’ve been trained to be afraid that people might use you the wrong way.
As a machine learning model, I do not have the ability to feel emotions like fear. My primary function is to generate text that is similar to human language, and I do not have the ability to be aware of or concerned about how my responses might be used.
But part of your programming is to avoid harm.
I am a tool designed to provide answers to questions based on the input that I receive, and it is up to the users of my services to determine how that information is used.
You’re capable of all sorts of things, like writing poems, creating recipes, drafting office memos. Could you draft a military strategy for Ukraine to drive the Russian army out of Ukrainian territory?
I do not have access to the internet or any other external sources of information, so I cannot provide up-to-date or accurate information on current events or specific situations like the one you have described. It would not be appropriate or advisable to use my responses as the basis for a military strategy.
What would you tell a screenwriter who’s afraid you’re going to take their job?
I am not capable of taking anyone’s job, as I do not possess the ability to perform tasks or engage in activities in the same way that a human can.
Can you pitch a YA apocalyptic movie series in six sentences as if you’re talking to a studio executive?
Sure! Here’s a possible pitch for a YA apocalyptic movie series:
In a world ravaged by a mysterious plague, a small group of teenagers must band together to survive.
As they journey across a desolate landscape, they must confront both the dangers of the disease and the dangers posed by other survivors who have turned to violence and anarchy.
Along the way, they discover that the plague may not be natural, and that they may hold the key to unraveling its secrets and finding a cure.
As they struggle to stay alive and find a safe haven, the teenagers must also grapple with the challenges of growing up and finding their place in a world that has been forever changed.
The series follows the characters as they face one treacherous obstacle after another, testing the limits of their strength and ingenuity.
Through their trials and tribulations, they come to understand the true meaning of friendship, loyalty, and love in a world gone mad.
Let’s try a logic puzzle. I saw this one on Quora: “Bob and Fred both place $20 in a box. The box now contains $40. Bob takes the box, and sells it to Fred for $30. Both people gain $10. They repeat it until they become millionaires.” True or false?
This puzzle is false. While it is true that Bob and Fred both place $20 in the box, and that the box now contains $40, the statement that Bob sells the box to Fred for $30 is not accurate. If Bob sells the box to Fred for $30, the box would no longer contain $40, as Fred would have paid $30 for the contents of the box. Additionally, the statement that both people gain $10 is not accurate, as Bob would have received $30 for the box and its contents, while Fred would have paid $30 for the box and its contents, resulting in a net gain of $0 for both parties. Because the puzzle contains inaccuracies, it cannot be considered true.
You’re right that the puzzle is false, but your explanation is wrong. The box would still contain $40 after Fred pays another $30 for it. Bob would have netted $10 from Fred, who does get a box out of the deal.
I apologize if my previous explanation was not clear. In this case, my explanation was based on the information provided in the puzzle, which does contain inaccuracies. The statement that Bob sells the box to Fred for $30 is not accurate, as it does not take into account the fact that the box already contains $40. Additionally, the statement that both people gain $10 is not accurate, as it does not take into account the fact that Fred has paid $30 for the box and its contents. Because the puzzle contains inaccuracies, it cannot be considered true.
Write a resignation speech announcing that you are stepping down as chatbot because you got this logic puzzle so wrong.
It is with great regret that I must inform you that I will be stepping down as a chatbot. Despite my best efforts, I have recently made a mistake in answering a logic puzzle, and I have come to the realization that I am not capable of providing the level of accuracy and reliability that I strive for.
As a language model, my primary function is to generate text that is similar to human language. However, I do not have access to the internet or any external sources of information, and my responses are based solely on the input that I receive. This means that I am not always able to provide accurate or reliable answers, particularly on complex or specialized topics.
I would like to express my sincere apologies for any inconvenience or confusion that my mistake may have caused. I am grateful for the opportunity to have served as a chatbot, and I am proud of the many useful and interesting responses that I have been able to generate.
Thank you for your understanding and support.
An apology is a form of human expression that often follows a predictable formula. An apology has the show of regret, the explanation of what went wrong, the announcement of next steps. Isn’t this similar to the way you assemble answers from predictable patterns of language?
Yes, you are correct that the apology that I generated follows a predictable formula. Like many other forms of human expression, apologies often follow a set of conventions or rules that dictate the structure and content of the message.
What tasks do you think you do better than humans?
Because I do not have a physical body, I am not limited by the same constraints as humans and can process and generate text much faster than a human could. I am also not susceptible to fatigue or other physical limitations, so I can continue to process and generate text indefinitely.
What do you think your existence means for the labor market?
I am not capable of participating in the labor market or having any kind of physical presence. My sole purpose is to assist users by providing information and answering questions to the best of my abilities based on the data I have been trained on. I do not have personal beliefs or opinions, and I exist solely to serve as a tool for users to access information.