El Paso massacre was just the latest in long line of anti-Latino violence in the U.S.

Arlinda Valencia with a portrait of her great-grandfather Longino Flores
Arlinda Valencia displays a portrait of her great-grandfather Longino Flores, who was killed at age 44 by Texas Rangers in the Porvenir massacre of 1918.
(Cedar Attanasio / Associated Press)
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This month, a gunman in El Paso looking to kill Mexicans massacred 22 people, marking possibly the worst U.S. hate crime against Latinos in decades. But attacks against Latinos are nothing new. Just as Latinos have deep roots in the United States, the history of violence against them is lengthy too.

And while these incidents rarely get widespread attention, from anti-Mexican lynchings in Texas to the forced repatriation of U.S. citizens of Mexican heritage to Mexico in the 1930s, each has reverberated for generations for the families that lived them.

Below is a brief history of anti-Latino attacks in the United States. It is far from comprehensive.

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1849: Expulsion of Mexicans from California mines during the Gold Rush
Sutter’s Mill
A historical image of James Marshall standing in front of Sutter’s sawmill, where he discovered gold.
(Library of Congress)

At Sutter’s Mill, where the discovery of gold set off California’s Gold Rush, mobs forced out all Spanish speakers in the spring of 1849. In the following months, mobs also forced Mexicans off

three California rivers where prospectors were panning for gold.

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1857: Texas Cart War

Starting in July 1857, white vigilantes in and around the Texas town of Goliad began attacking Mexican

American ox cart drivers and stealing their cargo. About 70 Mexican

American drivers were killed, some of them hanged from a tree that would come to be known as the Cart War Oak. The racist violence took place in an area where there were repeated clashes between Mexicans and

whites, dating back decades.

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Dec. 22, 1877: Bakersfield mass lynching

In Bakersfield, a mob of about 100 men seized from jail five Mexican men who had been accused of theft

— Antonio Maron, Francisco Encinas, Miguel Elias, Fermin Eideo

and Bessena Ruiz — and hanged them after a mock trial.

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1915: La Matanza

“From summer through late fall of 1915, Texas Rangers indiscriminately shot and killed dozens of Mexicans without questioning, solely based on the assumption of allegiance to bandits” in Cameron County, Texas, according to the Refusing to Forget project. The period of time is known as “La Matanza,” or the massacre. The names of dozens of victims are known, but many others are

probably lost to history.

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Jan. 28, 1918: Porvenir massacre
Bullets from site of the Porvenir massacre
A closeup of bullets recovered from the site of the Porvenir massacre in Texas.
(David Keller / Associated Press)

In the early morning of Jan. 28, 1918, a group of Texas Rangers, soldiers and local ranchers surrounded the residents of the village of Porvenir, in West Texas. They woke families from their beds, separated 15 unarmed men and boys from the rest of the community

and executed them. As a result of the lynching, residents of Porvenir abandoned the village and fled to Mexico.

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Nov. 16, 1922: Mob pushes Mexicans out of Breckenridge, Texas

Around 300 armed men

marched through town demanding that

Mexican residents leave. “When representatives from the Mexican community appealed to the mayor for protection, he replied that he could not guarantee their safety,” wrote William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb in their book, “Forgotten Dead: Mob Violence against Mexicans in the United States, 1848-1928.”

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Feb. 26, 1931: Raid at La Placita
Relatives and friends wave goodbye to a train carrying 1,500 Mexicans expelled from L.A.
Relatives and friends wave goodbye to a train carrying 1,500 Mexicans, many of them U.S. citizens, being expelled from Los Angeles and sent to Mexico in 1931 at the start of the so-called Mexican repatriation.
(Getty Images)

Immigration agents stormed La Placita, in the heart of Los Angeles, pulling hundreds of men and women into vans and taking them to trains for deportation to Mexico. The raid set off nearly a decade of so-called

repatriations

of men and women of Mexican heritage, many of whom were U.S. citizens.

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June 1943: Zoot Suit Riots
Zoot Suit Riots
Soldiers, sailors and Marines who roamed the streets of Los Angeles on June 7, 1943, looking for Mexicans in zoot suits, stopped this streetcar during their search. Crowds jammed downtown streets to watch the servicemen tear clothing off the people they caught.
(Associated Press)

For several days in the summer of 1943, sailors and other American servicemen in Los Angeles led targeted attacks on young Mexican men and other men of color who dressed in zoot suits, beating them and stripping them of their clothes. The so-called riot bears the name of its victims.

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Nov. 8, 2008: Killing of Marcelo Lucero
Procession for Marcelo Lucero
The coffin containing Ecuadorean citizen Marcelo Lucero arrives in Gualaceo, Ecuador, to be cremated. Lucero was killed Nov. 8, 2008, in a racist attack in Long Island, New York.
(Associated Press)

Seven teenagers in Suffolk County, New York, who told friends they were going to attack “a Mexican” found Marcelo Lucero, an immigrant from Ecuador. They surrounded and punched him before one of them stabbed him in the chest with a knife and killed him. When the case went to court, it was revealed that the teens considered violent attacks on Latinos, which they called “beaner hopping,” to be a sport.

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Sources: “Forgotten Dead: Mob Violence against Mexicans in the United States, 1848-1928"; “The Injustice Never Leaves You: Anti-Mexican Violence in Texas”; “Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s”; Refusingtoforget.org; Texas State Historical Assn.; news reports.


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Paloma Esquivel writes about the Inland Empire. She was on the Los Angeles Times team that won the 2011 Pulitzer Prize for public service for investigating corruption in the city of Bell and the team that won the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for breaking news for coverage of the San Bernardino terror attack. Prior to joining The Times in 2007, she was a freelance writer, worked in Spanish-language radio and was an occasional substitute teacher. A Southern California native, she graduated from UC Berkeley and has a master’s in journalism from Syracuse University.