Besides grief, South Koreans assailed by shame over Halloween disaster

Woman bowing before makeshift memorial to victims of Seoul crowd crush
A woman bows in tribute to the victims of the deadly Halloween crowd crush in Seoul, which killed more than 150 people.
(Ahn Young-joon / Associated Press)

When Kim Kap Soo watched live broadcasts of the Halloween crush that killed more than 150 people Oct. 29 in Seoul, there was shock and sadness — but also the embarrassed realization that this wasn’t the first time he’d seen South Korea suffer a disaster as a result of official incompetence and safety failures.

“My heart is aching very much. We are among the world’s 10 largest economies, and I totally don’t understand how this can happen in our nation,” said Kim, 73, a retired environmental engineering researcher. “Our public insensitivity to safety is too severe. We should always be careful about everything, but we don’t do so, and I think that’s the biggest problem.”

The crowd crush in Itaewon, a popular nightlife district, has caused an outpouring of sympathy for the victims, mostly people in their 20s and 30s, and demands for accountability. But many also share a strong feeling of embarrassment and anger that their country, a cultural and economic powerhouse that has risen from war, poverty and dictatorship, ignores safety and regulatory issues.


Similar crowd crushes have happened in other developed countries in recent years, but less severe than in Itaewon, where 156 people died and 187 were injured.

There are growing questions here about why South Korea hasn’t learned its lessons since the 2014 sinking of the ferry Sewol, which killed 304, most of them teenagers on a school trip. That disaster also prompted soul-searching over the country’s failure to enforce safety and regulatory rules.

“When it comes to public safety, I think we aren’t an advanced nation at all, though we might have grown economically,” said Park You Nam, 60, who runs a
jewelry shop in Seoul. “I feel really sorry and guilty for those young victims, because we all failed to protect them.”

The police chief acknowledges that officers didn’t effectively handle emergency calls warning of impending disaster in Seoul’s Itaewon district.

Nov. 1, 2022

South Korea’s recent cultural and economic achievements have been remarkable, including K-pop superstars BTS, Netflix megahit “Squid Game,” Samsung-made smartphones and Hyundai cars.

But there’s a dark side to its breakneck rise from the extreme poverty of the 1950s and ’60s: Critics say basic safety practices, social safety nets and minority voices have been largely overlooked. Not much has changed since the ferry sinking, they say, citing a series of smaller deadly incidents, such as fires and boat accidents.


On Tuesday, President Yoon Suk-yeol acknowledged that South Korea lacks studies on crowd management and ordered officials to formulate effective crowd-control methods based on high-tech resources such as drones. Police said they don’t have guidelines to deal with crowd surges at events that have no official organizers, such as the Halloween festivities in Itaewon.

Park Sangin, a professor at Seoul National University, said Itaewon shows that South Koreans haven’t done much to improve systems and policies to prevent man-made disasters. He said South Koreans have focused instead on finding, criticizing and punishing those responsible when an incident occurs.

South Korea’s National Police Agency is investigating whether ineptitude by local police contributed to the more than 150 deaths in the crush on Saturday.

Nov. 2, 2022

“For a country that has experienced many safety-related incidents, there should have been diverse studies and countermeasures to prevent their recurrences, and that’s the responsibility of government officials and politicians,” Park said. “But they haven’t done so, and I think it’s more important to criticize them to get things changed.”

What exactly caused Saturday’s crush is under investigation. But it happened when more than 100,000 people packed Itaewon’s alleys. Police dispatched only 137 officers to the neighborhood, mostly to deal with possible crimes such as narcotics use, not crowd control. Police acknowledged Tuesday that they had received about a dozen emergency calls from residents about the impending crowd surge but didn’t handle them effectively.

The disaster has left many South Koreans with feelings of trauma.

Witnesses said people fell like dominoes, screamed, suffered severe breathing difficulties and lost consciousness while crammed into a sloped, narrow alley. TV video showed people frantically giving CPR to victims lying motionless near a row of dead bodies covered by blue blankets.

A stunned Seoul is beginning to determine the scope of a crowd surge that killed more than 150 mostly young people out enjoying Halloween festivities.

Oct. 31, 2022

“When I first saw such things on TV, I thought they were happening in a foreign country, not here,” said Kim Suk-hee, 40, a real estate agent. “I was so stunned to learn that it was Itaewon, because I had actually planned to go there with my family for Halloween the next day. I still have trauma over what happened.”

Jang Seung-jin, a professor at Seoul’s Kookmin University, said what’s important now is how the country handles the aftermath.

Top officials have been criticized over comments that were seen as trying to avoid government responsibility for the disaster or even joking about it.

A public survey taken after the disaster shows Yoon’s approval rating at about 30% — quite low, given that he took office only six months ago.

Hundreds of abandoned shoes remain laid out in rows at a Seoul gym, a reminder of the chaos and tragedy of Saturday’s deadly Halloween crowd crush.

Nov. 1, 2022

His future could depend on how he handles the Itaewon tragedy, said Choi Jin, director of the Seoul-based Institute of Presidential Leadership.

At a Seoul mourning center, Vietnam War veteran Park Young-kee, 82, laid white flowers and bowed to the memory of the dead, including a distant relative who was a high school student.

“This kind of disaster didn’t happen when I was young. I can’t describe how I feel,” Park said. “This occurred because we are not an advanced country. If we are really an advanced country, could it have happened?”