Californians’ Affinity for GOP Is Growing, Poll Says
In their hearts, more Californians think of themselves as being Republicans than Democrats, despite official voter registration that favors the Democratic Party, according to the Gallup Organization.
In fact, Californians identify with the Republican Party more than other Americans do, Gallup found in a poll conducted for Times Mirror Co.
At the same time, Californians also are more liberal than other Americans when it comes to tolerating different views and life styles, the survey showed. This might seem paradoxical since the Democratic Party traditionally attracts liberals and the GOP is the party of conservatives.
But the survey’s findings could be illustrative of a broadening of the Republican base in California, a gradual political evolution that has made GOP voters, on the whole, less conservative than they were a generation ago, at least on social issues. It could also be merely symptomatic of the popularity of the two Republican officeholders Californians know best, President Ronald Reagan and Gov. George Deukmejian.
Times Mirror, which publishes the Los Angeles Times and owns several other newspapers, broadcasting stations and magazines, commissioned the poll by Gallup as part of an ongoing series of national and regional surveys. Telephone interviews with 1,002 California adults were conducted Oct. 25 to Nov. 8. The margin of error for this size survey is four percentage points in either direction.
Democrats long have outnumbered Republicans in California in official voter registration. In the most recent report by the California secretary of state, roughly 51% of those registered to vote were signed up as Democrats, compared to 38% who were Republicans. Another 2% were members of minor parties and about 9% were “declined to state,” or independents. Of the entire adult population eligible to register, the breakdown was 35% Democrat, 26% Republican, 1% minor parties and 6% independent.
But, according to Gallup, many Californians who are registered to vote as Democrats actually feel closer to the Republican Party. When those interviewed were asked, “As of today, do you consider yourself a Republican, Democrat or independent?” Republicans outnumbered Democrats by 36% to 31%, with 33% calling themselves independents.
GOP, Leaners Lead
The independents then were asked whether they “lean more toward” the GOP or the Democratic Party. Based on these responses, a second calculation was made that came out Republicans and leaners 49%, Democrats and leaners 43% and independents 8%.
Californians, therefore, identify with the Republican Party much more than Americans do on the whole. In a nationwide Gallup survey conducted for Times Mirror last April and May, Democrats outnumbered Republicans 37% to 25%. Counting “leaners,” the Democratic advantage was 50% to 38%.
Asked why so many people in California would register as Democrats yet think of themselves as Republicans, Gallup Senior Project Director Larry Hugick said, “Registration represents the past more than the present. People previously have registered in a party and they stay in the party technically, but their actual political affiliation is much more subject to change. It may bounce around a lot.”
Veteran pollster Mervin Field, who as director of the California Poll has been surveying the state’s residents for 40 years, said he also recently has been finding significant numbers of registered Democrats who really think of themselves as Republicans. Although his latest figures are not as dramatic as Gallup’s, Field over the years has been recording a gradual gain for the GOP in self-identification, and currently Republicans and Democrats are about evenly split in his surveys.
Field explained the phenomenon this way: “It’s habit. It’s like being a Catholic and not going to church.” He added, “How a person is registered doesn’t define that person as much as it did a generation or two ago. When someone a generation ago said he was a Democrat or a Republican, that told you a lot about that person. Today, it tells you less. Ties to parties are loose now. And there are more weak Democrats than weak Republicans.”
Gallup found additionally encouraging news for the GOP regarding the 1988 presidential election. Nearly one-half (47%) of the surveyed Californians said they are likely to vote for the Republican presidential nominee, contrasted to only roughly one-third (35%) who reported they probably will support the Democrat.
The good news for the Democrats, however, is that California is different from the rest of the country. In a nationwide Gallup survey taken for Times Mirror in early September, Americans reported, by 41% to 33%, that they likely will vote for the Democratic candidate.
Actually, California has gone Republican in eight of the last nine presidential elections and the last five in a row. But Democrats have been eyeing 1988 with more hope. They reason that no Californian is likely to be on the GOP ticket next November, unlike five of the last seven elections when Richard M. Nixon or Ronald Reagan was running.
However, Gallup found still another indication of Republican sentiment in California. By 46% to 41%, people said they are more likely to vote in the Republican primary next June than in the Democratic contest. This also was in sharp contrast to the responses in September of other Americans, who told Gallup (by 50% to 40%) that they likely will vote in a Democratic primary.
Bush Clear Favorite
Vice President George Bush clearly was the favorite among California Republicans and GOP “leaners” when this survey was taken roughly six weeks ago. He was running 30 percentage points ahead of Kansas Sen. Bob Dole, 49% to 19%. Then farther back, with 6% each, came former Secretary of State Alexander M. Haig Jr., New York Rep. Jack Kemp and former television evangelist Pat Robertson. Former Delaware Gov. Pierre S. (Pete) du Pont IV had 1%. “Others” and undecided totaled 13%.
In the Democratic race, the Rev. Jesse Jackson led Massachusetts Gov. Michael S. Dukakis by 14 points, 28% to 14%. Then came Illinois Sen. Paul Simon, 9%; Missouri Rep. Richard A. Gephardt, 4%; former Arizona Gov. Bruce Babbitt, 3%; Tennessee Sen. Albert Gore Jr., 3%; “others” and undecided 39%.
Reagan’s performance as President was approved by roughly half of the Californians, 49%, while 38% disapproved. But the President fared slightly better among other Americans during a simultaneous nationwide survey, also conducted by Gallup for Times Mirror. In that national poll, Reagan’s performance was approved by 54% to 35%.
Despite their being more Republican than other Americans, Californians are also more liberal on many social issues, Gallup reported.
For example, two-thirds (67%) of Californians said they oppose making it more difficult to get an abortion, but only a slim majority (51%) of all Americans do.
A clear majority of Californians (58%) believe that schools should not be able to fire teachers who are known homosexuals. But a majority of all Americans (51%) think schools should have that right.
Nearly three-fourths of Californians (72%) believe “it’s all right for blacks and whites to date each other.” Less than half (47%) of all Americans think that way.
Californians also disagree, more than other Americans, that “women should return to their traditional role in society” (81% contrasted to 67%), that “books containing dangerous ideas should be banned from public school libraries” (55% contrasted to 44%) and that “we have gone too far in pushing equal rights in this country” (62% contrasted to 53%).
On foreign affairs, less than half of Californians (48%) believe “there is an international Communist conspiracy to rule the world,” but the vast majority of all Americans (60%) think there is.
The survey did not contain questions about taxes and spending designed to measure the fiscal conservatism of Californians. But it did ask their attitudes toward business and found Californians to be more sympathetic than most Americans.
Californians, for example, are more likely than other Americans to hold a favorable impression of big business (56% versus 49%) and less likely to think “corporations make too much profit” (53% versus 65%).