You call that irony?

JON WINOKUR is the author of 20 reference books and anthologies, including, most recently, "The Big Book of Irony."

WHEN it was revealed in 2003 that William J. Bennett, author of “The Book of Virtues,” had a secret gambling habit, more than one commentator termed it a delicious irony, and it was indeed a pleasure to see a sanctimonious scold get his comeuppance. But it wasn’t irony, just hypocrisy.

It was ironic when, on “The Daily Show,” Jon Stewart commended Bennett for his indignation, and for “standing up to the William Bennetts of the world.”

Here’s another example of irony: the 1959 episode of “The Twilight Zone” titled “Time Enough at Last,” in which Burgess Meredith plays Henry Bemis, a bookish bank teller with thick glasses and an insatiable appetite for reading. One day, knocked unconscious by a giant explosion, he awakens to find that he’s the last man on Earth.


Wandering the desolate city, overwhelmed with loneliness, he is about to kill himself when he notices the ruins of ... a library! Cut to: stacks of books piled high on the library’s steps and Henry, giddy with joy. But as he settles down on the curb with the first book, his glasses fall off and shatter on the ground, trapping him forever in a blurry world.

Now that’s irony.

Irony is one of the most misused words in the English language. Much of the confusion comes from the existence of several distinct forms of irony. Verbal irony is the act of saying one thing but meaning the opposite with the intent of being understood as meaning the opposite, as in, “Nice weather we’re having” on a rainy day.

Cosmic irony involves quirks of fate, as when a UPS driver on his way to deliver parts to a hospital has a serious accident, is taken to the same hospital by ambulance, but the hospital can’t perform necessary tests because one of its machines is down and the parts to fix it are in the driver’s wrecked van.

SOCRATIC irony is a strategy for refuting dogma. In the Platonic dialogues, Socrates assumes the role of the eiron, a sly dissembler who feigns naivete by asking seemingly foolish questions that gradually hang his opponents by their own admissions. A modern practitioner is Sacha Baron Cohen, whose characters Borat and Ali G expose pomposity by pretending to be stupid.

Irony is about the interplay of opposites, not the random proximity of events. It’s ironic that Beethoven was deaf, but merely coincidental that Brad Pitt tore his Achilles tendon while playing Achilles in Troy. People miss the distinction and say “ironic” when they mean “coincidental,” an abuse encouraged by Alanis Morissette’s 1996 hit single, “Ironic,” in which situations purporting to be ironic are merely annoying (“a traffic jam when you’re already late, a no-smoking sign on your cigarette break”).

It is ironic that “Ironic” is an un-ironic song about irony. Is that perfectly clear?

In case you’re confused, here are some more examples of irony:

* Brewing heir Adolph Coors III was allergic to beer.

* County supervisors in Pima County, Ariz., held a closed meeting to discuss Arizona’s open meeting law.

* U.S. Border Patrol uniforms are manufactured in Mexico.

* When the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, so many visitors were taking souvenir pieces that a protective fence was installed, so that, yes, the Berlin Wall was guarded by a wall.

* Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe’s 2005 state of the nation address, in which he promised to remedy his country’s chronic electricity shortages, was blacked out by a power failure.

* A 17-year-old Amish boy was electrocuted by a downed power line that became tangled in the wheels of his horse-drawn buggy.

* The “Marlboro Man” died of lung cancer.

* A 2001 Father’s Day tribute on ESPN featured “How Sweet It Is (to be Loved by You),” sung by Marvin Gaye, who was shot and killed by his father in 1984.

* Entries for the Florida Press Club’s 2005 Excellence in Journalism Award for hurricane coverage were lost in Hurricane Katrina.