In classic detective novels, a plucky private investigator sometimes spots the license number of a suspicious car and wheedles his pals at the DMV to "run the plate" and match it with a name and address. But modern technology has exponentially increased the amount of license plate information available to law enforcement and to a thriving private industry of license plate scanners. A bill that would have set privacy standards for the collection and storage of license plate data has stalled in the state Senate, but the issue isn't going away.
License plates are now automatically photographed by cameras mounted on both vehicles and stationary objects such as poles, and the license numbers are entered into databases along with locations, dates and times. This can help police determine where a particular car was at a particular time, or figure out what cars were in the area when a crime was committed. The L.A. County Sheriff's Department reported having 84 vehicles outfitted with plate readers, and 47 more in fixed locations. An LAPD official said it had 240 car-mounted units and 30 fixed ones. In addition, police agencies often obtain license plate information from private companies such as Vigilant Solutions of Livermore, Calif., which has more than 3,500 law enforcement clients.
It's easy to say that no one has a reasonable expectation of privacy when driving on the streets or parking in a public place. But changing technology — especially the digitizing of license plate photographs and an almost endless storage capacity — has dramatically widened the window through which police can track an individual's comings and goings.
Like GPS technology, which allows police to track the movements of suspects through their cars and telephones, the proliferation of license plate scanners demonstrates the need to adapt traditional notions of privacy to new and invasive technologies. The