Over the years, California has told homeowners to clear brush around houses, required builders to use fire-resistant materials and ordered them to provide easy access to new developments.
But that didn’t prevent the deaths of 43 people in last year’s wine country fire siege. It didn’t prevent the destruction of more than 1,400 structures in the Woolsey fire. It didn’t prevent the Camp fire from wiping the town of Paradise off the map in the worst wildfire disaster in state history.
It’s time, some say, for California to move beyond the tried and true.
“We have to really start to think about new measures and new approaches that have to be more drastic,” said Bruce Cain, director of the Bill Lane Center for the American West at Stanford University.
Among them, he said, is “a strategic retreat from communities that are never going to be safe.”
Santa Ana winds send flames galloping across the Santa Monica Mountains to the sea every couple of decades. The Woolsey fire that has claimed three lives is merely the latest to clog Pacific Coast Highway with evacuees and prompt firefighters to say they have never seen anything like it.
On a windy ridge in the Sierra Nevada foothills, the old gold mining town of Paradise has blossomed in recent decades into a working-class retirement community of 27,000. Search crews sifting through its ashen ruins have found 77 dead. More than 14,000 structures are gone.
Last year’s wine country blazes swept across parts of eight counties and incinerated nearly 9,000 buildings.
Such staggering losses, experts say, amount to a public safety problem that demands more than the standard fire-safety requirements.
“All of that is important, but there are other things to be thinking about,” said Tom Jacobson, a land-use attorney and Sonoma State professor of geography, environment and planning.
“But this is literally life and death,” he said, and the state needs to assume a greater role in the siting and design of new development in high fire-hazard zones.
“We have a lot more ability to predict fire behavior and vulnerability and map those things,” he said. “We know stuff that we didn’t know before. What do we do about it?”
Max Moritz, a cooperative extension wildfire specialist at UC Santa Barbara’s Bren School, has devoted much of his career wrestling with how the nation’s most populous state can coexist with fire, an inevitable product of its spectacular wilds.
“It’s not a land management and wildland fire management problem. It’s an urban planning problem,” he said. “It’s an issue of where and how we build, and how do you get people out in time.”
Moritz suggested that Gov.-elect Gavin Newsom establish a permanent state commission to review development in hazardous fire zones, much as the California Coastal Commission reviews projects along the state’s coastline.
“The challenge for the incoming governor is to actually do something real about this in a holistic, long-term fashion. We need something new,” Moritz argued.
Cain, noting the jealousy with which local officials guard their land-use planning authority, predicted fierce resistance to any move to strengthen state oversight of development in fire-danger zones.
“It’s not something we’re going to be able to dictate on the state level,” he said. Rather, he added, “we have to induce people” to stop building — and rebuilding — in areas that are destined to burn again and again.
Government fire insurance could be withheld from those whose homes go up in smoke more than once, Cain suggested. Another approach would be to buy out homeowners in oft-scorched areas, just as some regions in the country have purchased properties that repeatedly flood.
Serial government bailouts of homeowners who make risky choices is “not sustainable economically,” Cain said.
Silence hangs over Paradise,Calif., after the explosive Camp fire burned through Butte County and claimed 23 lives. Residents have not been allowed back.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
President Donald Trump meets California Gov. Jerry Brown and Gov.-elect Gavin Newsom at Beale Air Force Base on Saturday.(Evan Vucci / Associated Press)
US President Donald Trump views damage from wildfires with Paradise Mayor Jody Jones in Paradise, Calif.(SAUL LOEB / AFP/Getty Images)
President Donald Trump walks with House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy of Calif., left and FEMA Administrator Brock Long, right, as he visits a neighborhood impacted by the wildfires in Paradise, Calif.(Evan Vucci / AP)
President Donald Trump tours the Woolsey Fire ravaged neighborhood on Dume Drive in Malibu on Saturday.(Genaro Molina / Los Angeles TImes)
President Donald Trump, second from left, tours the Woolsey Fire ravaged neighborhood on Dume Drive in Malibu.(Genaro Molina / Los Angeles TImes)
From left, Johnny Hardin, 15, Madeline Hardin, 13, Donita Hardin and Erik Hardin, 15 months old, get ready to sleep in their car after getting displaced by the Camp fire, at the Walmart parking lot in Chico, Calif.(Marcus Yam / Los Angeles Times)
Alexandria Wilson, 21, kisses her dog Harley, after they both escaped the Camp Fire in Paradise, Calif.(Marcus Yam / Los Angeles Times)
Search and rescue teams inspect the grounds of a house burned by the Camp Fire along Boquest Boulevard in Oroville, Calif.(Kent Nishimura / Los Angeles Times)
Volunteers hand out supplies to fire evacuees near a Walmart in Chico, Calif.(Kent Nishimura / Los Angeles Times)
People go through donated clothes at a Walmart in Chico, Calif.(Kent Nishimura / Los Angeles Times)
A sign warns looters at the site of burned-down properties in Paradise, Calif.(Marcus Yam / Los Angeles Times)
A search and rescue team combs through the debris for possible human remains Friday at Paradise Gardens, in Paradise, Calif.(Marcus Yam / Los Angeles Times)
Alexandria Wilson, 21, consoles her boyfriend, Jacob Golden, 25, as they recount their harrowing escape from the Camp Fire at a relative’s house in Applegate, Calif.(Marcus Yam / Los Angeles Times)
A vanished neighborhood in Paradise.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
A forensic team investigates the site of a Paradise home where remains were found.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
Michael John Ramirez hugs his wife, Charlie Ramirez, after they found her keepsake bracelet while sifting through the remains of their home in Paradise.(Marcus Yam / Los Angeles Times)
Religious figurines sit atop a burned vehicle in Paradise.(Marcus Yam / Los Angeles Times)
Authorities recover the remains of a fire victim from an overturned car alongside Pearson Road in Paradise.(Marcus Yam / Los Angeles Times)
David Neeley hugs his ex-wife, Jeanne Neely, and their daughter, Faith Neeley, 10, in a parking lot in Oroville, where they are staying amid the Camp fire.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
Megan Butler, 26, and her daughter Aurora, 2, are homeless after their house burned down in Concow in the Camp fire.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
Yolo County Animal Services Officer Stephanie Amato holds a chicken she helped rescue in Paradise.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
Smoke fills the sky as the Camp fire continues to burn along the North Fork of the Feather River. It has already burned more than 200,000 square miles.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
A sign in Paradise offers a warning for would-be looters.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
A man rests at a shelter at the Church of the Nazarene in Oroville, Calif.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
Outside of Pulga, Calif., on the North Fork of the Feather River, the Camp fire continues to burn.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
Outside of Pulga, Calif., on the North Fork of the Feather River, where the Camp fire may have started, helicopters do airdrops while ground crews try to keep the fire from spreading.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
Firefighter Brian Carter of Weed, Calif., keeps an eye on the flames along the North Fork of the Feather River.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
Many people don’t want to stay in shelters because they can’t take their dogs inside. This dog waits for his human companion in a parking lot in Oroville.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
Residents of Paradise, Calif., try to get through a roadblock to check on their home but are turned away. People haven’t been allowed to return to the town.(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
The Camp fire burns along a ridgetop near Big Bend, Calif., on Saturday.(Noah Berger / AP)
Yuba County sheriff’s officials carry a body away from a burned residence in Paradise.(Josh Edelson / AFP/Getty Images)
A crew from the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection walks through the rubble of a home while putting out hot spots in Paradise, Calif.(Mason Trinca / For The Times)
Flames and embers, pushed by strong dry winds, set the town of Paradise, Calif., ablaze. Thousands of buildings were destroyed.
(Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)
Brad Weldon, 63, waits for help along Skyway in Paradise, Calif. Weldon was among the residents who stayed and battled the wildfire.(Mason Trinca / For The Times)
Fire crews put out hot spots in Paradise, Calif.(Mason Trinca / For The Times)
Firefighters walk through the rubble of a home in Paradise, Calif.(Mason Trinca / For The Times)
The Camp fire and the wine country firestorm were wind whipped, raining embers and flames on homes before many had a chance to evacuate. Victims died in their houses or perished while fleeing on foot or in vehicles.
In such extreme situations, Moritz said, lives would be saved if people could quickly take refuge in established community fire shelters in their neighborhoods.
“The idea is, if you can’t get out in time, you shouldn’t be running down the street with your children,” he said. “You shouldn’t be trying to evacuate in a traffic jam as it burns over. We have to start thinking a little bit outside of the box. Because we’re clearly not prepared.”
Such shelters would be a variation of local fire refuges that Australia created after 173 people died in more than 400 bushfires that raged across the state of Victoria in 2009.
South Australia has 98 “last-resort refuges,” which are either firesafe buildings or open areas that people can go to if flames are bearing down on them. None have yet been used, so there is little information about their effectiveness.
Safety experts also worry that their existence will discourage people from evacuating ahead of a fire.
Living in a hot, dry continent prone to wildfire, many Australians have taken it upon themselves to construct their own fire shelters or bunkers. The internet is rife with instructions and videos on how to build them, and companies offer supply kits, units and installation services.
“Bunkers are possible, but we do discourage them except in high-risk homes on difficult sites,” said Alan March, an urban planning professor at the University of Melbourne.
“Getting to a tiny bunker and relying on cans of air in very unpleasant conditions and being unable to see out and monitor things would be a very unpleasant few hours.”